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INDIAN HISTORY-IMPORTANT DATES
Tuesday, 27 December 2011 03:08

I. ANCIENT

B.C.

 

2300-1750

Indus Valley Civilization.

From 1500

Coming of the Aryans.

1200-800

Expansion of the Aryans in the Ganga Valley.

600

Age of the 16 Mahajanapadas of Northern India.

563-483

Bddha’s Life-span.

540-468

Mahavir’s Life-span

362-321

Nanda dynasty.

327-326

Alexander’s invasion of India. It opened a land route between India and Europe.

322

Accession of Chandragupta Maurya.

305

Defeat of Seleucus at the hands of Chandragupta Maurya.

273-232

Ashoka’s reign.

261

Conquest of Kalinga.

145-101

Regin of Elara, the Chola king of Sri Lanka.

58

Beginning of Vikram era.

AD

 

78

Beginning of Saka era.

78-101

Kanishka’s reign.

319-320

Commecement of Gupta era.

380

Accession of Chandragupta II ‘Vikramaditya’

405-411

Visit of Chinese traveller Fahien.

415

Accession of Kumargupta I.

455

Accessuib of Skandagupta.

606-647

Harshavardhan’s reign.

II. MEDIEVAL

B.C.

 

712

First invasion in Sindh by Arabs (Mohd. Bin Qasim).

836

Accession of King Bhoja of Kannauj.

985

Accession of Rajaraja, the Chola ruler.

998

Accession of Sultan Mahmud Ghazni.

1001

First invasion of India by Mahmud Ghazni who defeated Jaipal, ruler of Punjab.

1025

Destruction of Somnath Temple by Mahmud Ghazni.

1191

First battle of Tarain.

1192

Second battle of Tarain.

1206

Accession of Qutubuddin Aibak to the throne of Delhi.

1210

Death of Qutubuddin Aibak.

1221

Chengiz Khan invaded India (Mongol invasion).

1236

Accession of Razia Sultana to the throne of Delhi.

1240

Death of Razia Sultana.

1296

Accession of Alauddin Khilji.

1316

Death of Alauddin Khilji.

1325

Accession of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.

1327

Transfer of capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad) in Deccan by the Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.

1336

Foundation of Vijaynagar empire in the South.

1351

Accession of Firoz Shah Tughlaq.

1398

Timur’s invasion of India.

1469

Birth of Guru Nanak.

1494

Accession of Babur in Farghana.

1497-98

First voyage of Vasco da Gama to India (discovery of sea route to India via the Cape of Good Hope).

1526

First Battle of Panipat; Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi; foundation of Mughal dynasty by Babur.

1527

Battle of Khanwa-Babur defeated Rana Sanga.

1530

Death of Babur and accession of Humayun.

1539

Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun in the battle of Chausa and became India’s emperor.

1555

Humayun recaptured the throne of Delhi.

1556

Second Battle of Panipat (Bairam Khan defeated Hemu).

1556

Battle of Talikota (Rakshasa – Tangadi).

1576

Battle of Haldighati-Rana Pratap was defeated by Akbar.

1582

Din-i-Ilahi founded by Akbar.

1600

English East India Company established.

1605

Death of Akbar and accession of Jahangir.

1606

Execution of Guru Arjun Dev, the 5th Guru of Sikhs.

1611

Jahangir marries Nurjahan.

1615

Sir Thomas Roe visits Jahangir.

1627

Birth of Shivaji and death of Jahangir.

1628

Shahjahan become emperor of India.

1631

Death of Mumtazmahal.

1634

The English permitted to trade in India (in Bengal).

1659

Accession of Aurangzeb, Shahjhan imprisoned.

1665

Shivaji imprisoned by Aurangzeb.

1666

Death of Shahjahan

1675

Execution of Guru Teg Bahadur, the 9th Guru of Sikhs.

1680

Death of Shivaji.

1707

Death of Aurangzeb.

1708

Death of Guru Gobind Singh the 10th Guru of Sikhs.

1739

Nadir Shah invades India.

1757

Battle of Plassey, establishment of British political rule in India at the hands of Lord Clive.

1761

Third battle of Panipat.

1764

Battle of Buxar.

1765

Clive appointed Company’s Govenror in India.

1767-69

First Anglo-Mysore War.

1780

Birth of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

1780-84

Second Anglo-Mysore War.

1784

Pitt’s India Act.

1790-92

Third Anglo-Mysore War.

1793

The Permanent Settlement of Bengal.

1799

Fourth Anglo-Mysore War; Death of Tipu Sultan.

1802

Treaty of Bassein.

1809

Treaty of Amritsar.

1829

Practice of Sati Phohibited.

1830

Raja Rammohan Roy visits England.

1833

Death of Raja Rammohan Roy at Bristol, England.

1839

Death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

1839-42

First Anglo-Afghan War.

1845-46

First Anglo-Sikh War.

1852

Second Anglo-Burmese War.

1853

First Railway line opened between Bombay and Thane and a Telegraph line in Calcutta.

1857

The Sepoy Mutiny or First War of Independence.

1861

Birth of Rabindranath Tagore.

1869

Birth of Mahatma Gandhi.

1885

Foundation of Indian National Congress.

1889

Birth of Jawaharlal Nehru

1897

Birth of Subhash Chandra Bose.

1903

Tibet Expedition.

1905

Paritition of Bengal by Lord Curzon.

1906

Foundation of Muslim League.

1911

Delhi Darbar, King George V and Queen visit India; Delhi becomes the capital of India.

1914

World War I begins.

1916

Lucknow Pact signed by Muslim League and Congress, Foundation of BHU, Home Rule League founded.

1918

World War I ends.

1919

Montague-Chelmsford Reforms introduced, Jalllianwala Bagh massacre at Amritsar.

1920

Khilafat Movement launched, first meeting of All India Trade Union Congress, Hunter Commission Report on Jallianwala Bagh Massacre Published First Non-cooperation movement launched by Gandhi.

1922

Violent incidents at Chaura Chauri Gandhi calls of Non-cooperation movement.

1925

Communist Party of India organized at Kanpur.

1927

Boycott of Simon Commission, Broadcasting started in India.

1928

Death of Lala Lajpat Rai, Nehru Report.

1929

Resolution of ‘Poorna Swaraj’ (complete independence) passed at Lahore Session of INC.

1930

Civil disobedience movement launched, Dandhi March by Mahatma Gandhi (April 6, 1930) First round table conference held in London.

1931

Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Civil Disobedience movement suspended Second round table conference held.

1932

Mac Donald announces communal award (modified by Poona Pact, September 24).

1935

Government of India Act.

1937

Provincial Autonomy, Congress forms ministries.

1938

All India Kishan Sabha formed.

1939

World War II begins (September 3), Resignation of Congress Ministries in Provinces.

1941

Escape of Subhash Chandra Bose from India and death of Rabindranath Tagore.

1942

Arrival of Cripps Mission in India, Quit India movement launched (August 8).

1943-44

SC Bose forms Provincial Government of Free India and Indian National Army in Singapore; Bengal famine.

1945

Trial of Indian National Army at Red Fort, Shimla Conference; World War II ends.

1946

British Cabinet Mission visits India; Interim government formed at the Centre. The Muslim League decides on “Direct Action” for winiing Pakistan.

1947

Division of India; India and Pakistan form separate independent dominions.

 

THE GANDHIAN ERA (1917-47)

MAHATMA GANDHI (1869-1948)

CHRONOLOGICAL OVERVIEW IN SOUTH AFRICA: 1893-1914

YEAR

 

1893

Departure of Gandhi to South Africa.

1894

Foundation of Natal Indian Congress.

1899

Foundation of Indian Ambulance Core during Boer Wars.

1904

Foundation of Indian Opinon (magazine) and Phoenix Farm, at phoenix, near Durban.

1906

First Civil Disobedience Movement (Satyagaraha) against Asiatic Ordiannce in Transvaal.

1907

Satyagraha against Compulsory Registration and Passes for Asians (the Black Act) in Transvaal.

1908

Trial and imprisonment-Johanesburg Jail (First Jail Term).

1910

Foundation of Tolstoy Farm (Later-Gandhi Asharama), near Johanesburg.

1913

Satyagraha against derecognition of non-Christian marriages in Cape Town.

1914

Quits South Africa forever and returns to India, Awarded Kaisar-i-Hind for raising an Indian Ambulance Core during Boer war

IN INDIA: 1915-18 I. ANCIENT

YEAR

 

1915

Arrived in Bombay (India) on 9 January 1915; Foundation of Satyagraha Ashrama at Kocharab near Ahmedabad (20 May). In 1917, Ashrama shifted at the banks of Sabarmati; All India tour.

1916

Abstain from active politics (though he attended Lucknow session of INC held in 26-30 December, 1916, where Raj Kumar Shukla, a cultivator from Bihar, requested him to come to Champaran).

1917

Gandhi entered active politics with Champaran campaign to redress grievances of the cultivators oppressed by Indigo planter of Bihar (April 1917). Champaran Satyagraha was his first Civil Disobedience Movement in India.

1918

In February 1918, Gandhi launched the struggle in Ahmedbad which involved industrial workers. Hunger strike as a weapon was used for the first time by Gandhi during Ahmedabad struggle. In March 1918, Gandhi worked for peasants of Kheda in Gujarat who were facing difficulties in paying the rent owing to failure of crops. Kheda Satyagraha was his first Non-Cooperation Movement.

1919

Gandhi gave a call for Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act on April 6, 1919 and took the command of the nationalist movement for the first time (First all-India Political Movement), Gandhi returns Kaisar-i-Hind gold medal as a protest against  Jallianwala Bagh massacre – April 13, 1919; The All India Khilafat Conference elected Gandhi as its president (November 1919, Delhi).

1920-22

Gandhi leads the Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movement (August 1, 1920 – February 1922), Gandhi calls off Movement (Feb. 12, 1922), after the violent incident at Chauri-Chaura on February 5, 1922. Non-Cooperation Movement was First mass based politics under Gandhi.

1924

Belgaum (Karnataka) session of INC-for the first and the last time Gandhi was elected the president of the Congress.

1925-27

Gandhi retires from active politics for the first time and devotes himself to ‘constructive programme’ of the Congress; Gandhi resumes active politics in 1927.

1930-34

Gandhi launches the Civil Disobedience Movement with his Dandi march/ Salt Satyagraha (First Phase: March 12, 1930 – March 5, 1931; Gandhi-Irwin Pact: March 5, 1931; Gandhi attends the Second Round Table Conference in London as sole representative of the Congress: September 7 – December 1, 1931; Second Phase: January 3, 1932 – April 17, 1934).

1934-39

Gandhi retires from active politics, sets up Sevagram (Vardha Ashram).

1939

Gandhi resumes active politics.

1940-41

Gandhi launches Individual Satyagraha Movement.

1942

Call to Quit India Movement for which Gandhi raised the slogan, ‘Do or Die’ (Either free India or die in the attempt), Gandhi and all Congress leaders arrested (August 9, 1942).

1942-44

Gandhi kept in detention at the Aga Khan Palace, near Pune (August 9, 1942 – May, 1944). Gandhi lost his wife Kasturba (February 22, 1944) and private secretary Mahadev Desai; this was Gandhi’s last prison term.

1945

Gandhi’s influence on the Congress wanes perceptively after 1945.

1946

Deeply distressed by theory of communal violence, as a result Muslim League’s Direct Action call, Gandhi travelled to Noakhali (East Bengal-now Bangladesh) and later on to Calcutta to restore communal peace.

1947

Gandhi, deeply distressed by the Mountbatten Plan / Partition Plan (June 3, 1947), while staying in Calcutta to restore communal violence, observes complete silence on the dawn of India’s Independence (August, 15, 1947). Gandhi returns to Delhi (September 1947).

1948

Gandhi was shot dead by Nathu Ram Godse, a member of RSS, while on his way to the evening prayer meeting at Birla House, New Delhi (January 30, 1948). He died, with ‘Hey Ram’ on his lips.

 

FACTS ABOUT GANDHI

  • DATE AND PLACE OF BIRTH: October 2, 1869 at Porbandar, Gujarat [Note: UNO declared October, 2 as ‘International Non - Violence Day’ (Antarrashtriya Ahimsa Diwas)].
  • FATHER: Karamchand Gandhi,
  • MOTHER: Putali Bai,
  • POLITICAL GURU: Gopal Krishan Gokhale,
  • PRIVATE SECRETARY: Mahadev Desai.
  • LITERARY INFLUENCE ON GANDHI: John Ruskin’s Unto the Last, Emerson, Thoreau, Leo Tolstoy, the Bible and the Gita.
  • LITERARY WORKS: Hindi Swaraj (1909), My Experiments with Truth (Autobiography, 1927) – reveals events of Gandhi’s life upto 1922.
  • AS AN EDITOR:
  • Indian Opinion: 1903–15 (in English & Gujarati, for a short period in Hindi & Tamil),
  • Harijan: 1919–31 (in English, Gujarati and Hindi),
  • Young India: 1933–42 (in English, Gujarati named Navjeevan).

OTHER NAMES:

Mahatma (Saint) – by Rabindranath Tagore, 1917;

Malang Baba / Nanga Faqir (Naked Saint) – by Kabailis of North-West Frontier, 1930;

Indian Faqir / Traitor Faqir – by Winston Churchill, 1931;

Half-naked Saint by – Franq Mores, 1931;

Rashtrapita (the Father of the Nation) – by Subhash Chandra Bose, 1944.