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SPORTS & GAMES
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Monday, 26 December 2011 13:01

OLYMPIC GAMES

The origin of the ancient Olympic Games is shrouded in mystery. The first historical mention of the Game was in 776 B.C. Iphites (King of Elis) in collaboration with Cleosthenes (King of Pisa) and Lycurgus (King of Sparta) is reported to have promoted or initiated the Games of Olympia, the Olympiad celebrated that year was considered as the first and was used to date subsequent historic events, the Old Olympiads were held after every four years and the Greeks measured the time in terms of the Games started on the first new moon after the summer solstice, around mid-July/August. The Games started with sacrifices.

Only free-born male Greek citizens without a criminal record and officially registered in the Citizen Roster of his native city could contest. Slaves and women were not eligible. Slowly people from other parts of the world were allowed to participate and women were also allowed to watch the Games.

MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES: The revival of the Games was undertaken by Baron Pierre de Coubertin, a French nobleman, a brilliant educator and a practical dreamer. The Games were revived after nearly 1500 years. Baron Pierre de Coubertin was born in a family of Italian origin which had settled in France. On November 25, 1892, during a conference at Sorbonne about ‘history of physical exercise’, he pronounced the famous six words in public: ‘The Restoration of the Olympic Games’. Coubertin wanted Paris to be the site of the First Modern Olympics and he proposed that the same should be started in the year 1900. But it was decided that the Games he started in the year 1896 itself. Venue of the First Modern Olympics was Athens (Greece). The first Modern Olympic Games were held in 1896. The Games are declared open by the head (of the state) of host nation.

OLYMPIC MOTTO, EMBLEM AND FLAG

MOTTO: “Citius, Aitius, Fortius”. These are Latin words, which mean ‘Swifter, Higher and Stronger’.

It was composed in 1897 by Rev. Father Didon, a friend of Baron Pierre de Coubertin, and introduced in the 1920 games for the first time.

EMBLEM: Is composed of five inter-twined rings, each of a different colour, representing five continents of the world. It is placed in the centre of the Olympic Flag.

COLOUR OF RING


CONTINENT REPRESENTED

Blue ring

Europe

Yellow ring

Asia

Black ring

Africa

Red ring

America

Green ring

Oceania

FLAG: The Olympic flag is white in colour (originally made of cotton) 3m x 2m. The emblem placed in the middle is 206cm x 60cm. The flag was designed by Coubertin himself in 1913 and it was first hosted in 1920 at the Antwerp Games and the motto was then added to it.

 

EPIGRAM: “The essential thing in life is not conquering but fighting well”. The epigram was given by the Bishop of Pennsylvania in 1908. It means the importance of the Olympics is not the winning but taking part in it.

The torch used to kindle the flames is first lit by the sun’s rays at the shrine of Zeus (Greece). It is then carried overland by a relay of runners to the site of the games and placed in a bowl during the period of the Games.

THE OLYMPIC TORCH RELAY: The practice of Torch Relay from Olympia (Greece) to the venue of the Games was first introduced by German Olympic Committee for the Berlin Games in 1936 and, has since become part of the Olympic games.

OLYMPIC MASCOT: It was introduced in 1972 at the 20th Olympic Games held at Munich and since then an Olympic Mascot is selected for a particular year and venue. The following have been the Mascot so far.

 

YEAR

MASCOT

VENUE

1972

Waldi (Dachshund)

Munich

1976

Amik (Beaver)

Montreal

1980

Misha (Bear)

Moscow

1984

Sam (Eagle)

Los Angeles

1988

Hodori (Cub Tiger)

Seoul

1992

Cobi (Spain)

Barcelona

1996

Izzy (Space Creature)

Atlanta

2000

Oltie, Syd and Mille (a bird, a platypus, and a hedge hog)

Sydney

2004

Phevos and Athena (Two brother sister inspired by Greek dolls)

Athens

2006

Neve (a female ball of snow Gliz a male block of ice)

Turin

2008

The Fuwa consisting of five figures; Beibei, Jing Jing, Huan huan, Yingying and Nini

Beijing

MEDALS: The medal is about 60 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness. The Gold and Silver medals are both made of 92.5% pure silver. However, the Gold medal is plated with 6 gm, of pure gold. The third-position medal is made of bronze in addition to prizes given to athletes. There are certain awards and trophies which are awarded to those who promote, the cause of Olympics, as given below:

THE OLYMPIC ORDER: Instituted in 1974, the Olympic Order in a gold, silver or bronze decoration, awarded to a person who has rendered outstanding services or displaced the Olympic ideals.

Mrs. Indira Gandhi was awarded this Order in 1983 by the IOC for her contribution to the organization of the New Delhi Asiad (1982).

THE OLYMPIC CUP: Instituted in 1906, by Coubertin. Its reproduction is awarded to an institution which contributes to the development of sports in general and the Olympic movement in particular. The original cup remains at the Chateau de vivy in France.

SIR THOMAS FEARNLEY CUP: Awarded to a club or a local sport association for remarkable achievement in the service of the Olympics. It was instituted in 1950 by Sir Thomas Fearnley, a former IOC member.

MOHAMMED TOHER TROPHY: Awarded to an amateur athlete, not necessarily an Olympian. It was instituted in 1950 by the former IOC member Mohammed Toher.

COUNT ALBERTA BONACOSSA TROPHY: Awarded to a National Olympic Committee for outstanding work. It was instituted in 1954 by the Italian National Olympic Committee in honour of its IOC member Count Alberto Bonacossa.

TOKYO TROPHY: It is given for exemplary conducted and displayed by an athlete during the Games. It was instituted in 1964 and presented by Tokyo City.

INTRODUCTION OF EVENTS IN THE OLYMPICS

EVENTS

YEAR

Archery

1900 at Paris ( but not held from 1924-1968)

Athletics

1896 at Athens

Badminton

1992 at Barcelona

Basketball

1904 and 1928 – a demonstration event

1936 at Berlin as a medal event

Boxing

1904 at St. Louis

Canoeing

1936 at Berlin (for men)

1948 at London (for women)

Cycling

1896 at Athenes ( but not held in1904)

Equestrian

1900 at Paris ( but not held from 1904-1908)

Fencing

1896 at Athens ( for men); and

1924 at Paris (for women)

Football

1900 at Paris ( but not held in 1932)

Gymnastics

1896 at Athens

Handball

1936 at Berlin as outdoor handball

1952 at Helsinki as demonstration games

1972 at Munich as a medal event

Hockey

1908 at London ( but not held from 1912-1924) for men;

1980 at Moscow for women

Judo

1964 at Tokyo ( but not held in1968) Modern

Penatathlon

1912 at Stockholm as individual competition.

1952 at Helsinki as team event

Rowing

1896 at Athens; and

1976 at Montreal for women

Shooting

1896 at Athens ( but not held from 1904-1928)

Swimming

1896 at Athens for men

1908 at London, diving for men

1912 at Stockholm, swimming and diving for women;

1900 at Paris (waterpolo)

Tennis

1924 at Paris ( but not held later); and

1988 at Seoul (returned as a medal event)

Table Tennis

1988 at Seoul

Volleyball

1964 at Tokyo for men and women

Weightlifting

1896 at Athens; and

Wrestling

1896 at Athens (Greco-Roman)

1904 at St Louis (Free-style)

Yachting

1900 at Paris

HISTORY OF OLYMPIC GAMES (1896-2012)

Sl. No.

Year

Place and Host Country

Countries securing first, second and third positions

1.

1896

Athens, Greece

USA, Greece, Germany

2.

1900

Paris, France

France, USA, UK

3.

1904

St. Louis, USA

USA, Cuba, Germany

4.

1908

London, UK

UK, USA, Sweden

5.

1912

Stockholm, Sweden

USA, Sweden, UK

6.

1916

Berlin, Germany

Abandoned due to World War-I

7.

1920

Antwerp, Belgium

USA, Sweden, UK

8.

1924

Paris, France

USA, Finland, France

9.

1928

Amsterdam, Netherland

USA, Germany, Finland

10.

1932

Los Angles, USA

USA, Italy, France

11.

1936

Berlin, Germany

Germany, USA, Hungary

12.

1940

Helsinki, Finland

Abandoned due to World War-II

13.

1944

London, UK

Abandoned due to World War-II

14.

1948

London, UK

USA, Sweden, France

15.

1952

Helsinki, Finland

USA, USSR, Hungary

16.

1956

Melbourne, Australia

USSR, USA, Australia

17.

1960

Rome, Italy

USSR, USA, Italy

18.

1964

Tokyo, Japan

USA, USSR, Japan

19.

1968

Mexico City, Mexico

USA, USSR, Japan

20.

1972

Munich, W. Germany

USSR, USA, East Germany

21.

1976

Montreal, Canada

USSR, East Germany, USA

22.

1980

Moscow, Russia

USSR, East Germany, Bulgaria

23.

1984

Los Angles, USA

USA, Rumania, West Germany

24.

1988

Seoul, S. Korea

USSR, East Germany, USA

25.

1992

Barcelona, Spain

CIS, USA, Germany

26.

1996

Atlanta, USA

USA, Russia, Germany

27.

2000

Sydney, Australia

USA, Russia, Germany

28.

2004

Athens, Greece

USA, China, Russia

29.

2008

Beijing, China

China, USA, Russia

30.

2012

London (UK)

Scheduled

INDIA’S PERFORMANCE IN THE OLYMPICS

This chart comprises of only those Olympics where India could manage to win at least one medal.

YEAR

GOLD

DISCIPLINE

SILVER

DISCIPLINE

BRONZE

DICIPLINE

1900

2

Athletics

 

Athletics

 

 

1928

1

Hockey

 

 

 

 

1932

1

Hockey

 

 

 

 

1936

1

Hockey

 

 

 

 

1948

1

Hockey

 

 

 

 

1952

1

Hockey

 

 

1

Wrestling

1956

 

 

1

Hockey

 

 

1960

1

Hockey

 

 

 

 

1964

1

Hockey

 

 

 

 

1968

 

 

 

 

1

Hockey

1972

 

 

 

 

1

Hockey

1980

 

 

 

 

1

Hockey

1996

 

 

 

 

1

Tennis

2000

 

 

 

 

1

Weightlifting

2004

 

 

 

 

 

 

2008

 

 

 

 

2

Wrestling & Boxing

 

 

 

 

 

FIRST OLYMPICS

Year

1896

Date

April 4 to 15

Place

Athens (Greece)

Participating Countries

13

Players

311 (all males)

Game Competitions

42

India’s Position

Not Participated

 

SECOND OLYMPICS

Year

1900

Date

May 20 to October 28

Place

Paris (France)

Participating Countries

22

Players

1330 (11 Females)

Game Competitions

60

India’s Position

2 Silver Medals

(won by Norman Pritchard a Calcutta based Anglo – Indian – Athletics)

 

THIRD OLYMPICS

Year

1904

Date

July 1 to November 23

Place

St. Louis (America)

Participating Countries

12

Players

625 (8 females)

Game Competitions

67

India’s Position

Not Participated

 

FOURTH OLYMPICS

YEAR

1908

Date

April 27 to October 31

Place

London (Britain)

Participating Countries

22

Players

2035 (36 females)

Game Competitions

104

India’s Position

Not Participated

 

FIFTH OLYMPICS

Year

1912

Date

May 5 to July 22

Place

Stockholm (Sweden)

Participating Countries

28

Players

2547 (57 females)

Game Competitions

106

India’s Position

Not Participated

 

SIXTH OLYMPICS

Year

1916

Date

Cancelled due to World War I

Place

Berlin (Germany)

 

SEVENTH OLYMPICS

Year

1920

Date

April 20 to September 12

Place

Antwerp (Belgium)

Participating Countries

29

Players

2607 (64 females)

Game Competitions

104

India’s Position

Did not win any medal

 

EIGHTH OLYMPICS

Year

1924

Date

May 4 to July 27

Place

Paris (France)

Participating Countries

44

Players

3090 (136 females)

Game Competitions

137

India’s Position

Did not win any medal

 

NINTH OLYMPICS

Year

1928

Date

May 17 to August 12

Place

Amsterdam (Holland)

Participating Countries

46

Players

3014 (290 females)

Game Competitions

120

India’s Position

1 Gold Medal (in Hockey)

 

TENTH OLYMPICS

Year

1932

Date

July 30 to August 14

Place

Log Angles (USA)

Participating Countries

47

Players

1408 (127 females)

Game Competitions

124

India’s Position

1 Gold Medal (in Hockey)

 

ELEVENTH OLYMPICS

Year

1936

Date

August 1 to 16

Place

Berlin (Germany)

Participating Countries

49

Players

4066 (328 females)

Game Competitions

142

India’s Position

1 Gold Medal (in Hockey)

 

 

TWELFTH OLYMPICS

Year

1940

Date

Cancelled due to World War II

Place

Tokyo, later on Helsinki

 

 

 

THITEENTH OLYMPICS

Year

1944

Date

Cancelled due to World War II

Place

London (Britain)

 

 

FORTEENTH OLYMPICS

Year

1948

Date

July 29 to August 14

Place

London (Britain)

Participating Countries

59

Players

4099 (385 females)

Game Competitions

138

India’s Position

1 Gold Medal (in Hockey)

 

 

FIFTEENTH OLYMPICS

Year

1952

Date

July 19 to August 3

Place

Helsinki (Finland)

Participating Countries

69

Players

4925 (518 females)

Game Competitions

149

India’s Position

1 Gold Medal (in Hockey) & 1 Bronze Medal (in Wrestling)

 

 

SIXEENTH OLYMPICS

Year

1956

Date

November 22 to December 8

Place

Melbourne (Australia)

Participating Countries

71

Players

3342 (384 females)

Game Competitions

145

India’s Position

1 Gold Medal (in Hockey)

 

 

SEVENTEENTH OLYMPICS

Year

1960

Date

August 25 to September 11

Place

Rome (Italy)

Participating Countries

83

Players

5348 (61 females)

Game Competitions

150

India’s Position

1 Silver Medal (in Hockey)

 

 

EIGHTEENTH OLYMPICS

Year

1964

Date

October 10 to 24

Place

Tokyo (Japan)

Participating Countries

93

Players

5140 (683 females)

Game Competitions

163

India’s Position

1 Gold Medal (in Hockey)

 

 

NINETEENTH OLYMPICS

Year

1968

Date

October 12 to 27

Place

Mexico City (Mexico)

Participating Countries

112

Players

5531 (781 females)

Game Competitions

182

India’s Position

1 Bronze Medal (in Hockey)

 

 

TWENTIETH OLYMPICS

Year

1972

Date

August 26 to September 10

Place

Munich (Germany)

Participating Countries

122

Players

7147 (1070 females)

Game Competitions

195

India’s Position

1 Bronze Medal (in Hockey)

 

 

TWENTY-FIRST OLYMPICS

Year

1976

Date

July 17 to August 1

Place

Montreal (Canada)

Participating Countries

88

Players

6152 (1261 females)

Game Competitions

198

India’s Position

Did not win any medal

 

 

TWENTY-SECOND OLYMPICS

Year

1980

Date

July 19 to August 3

Place

Moscow (Soviet Union)

Participating Countries

81

Players

5326 (1088 females)

Game Competitions

203

India’s Position

1 Gold Medal (In Hockey)

 

 

TWENTY-THIRD OLYMPICS

Year

1984

Date

July 28 to August 12

Place

Los Angeles (U.S.A.)

Participating Countries

140

Players

7078 (1620 females)

Game Competitions

221

India’s Position

Did not win any medal 5th Position in Hockey

 

TWENTY-FORTH OLYMPICS

Year

1988

Date

September 17 to October 2

Place

Seoul (Korea)

Participating Countries

160

Players

13850 (including the officials)

Game Competitions

237

India’s Position

Did not win any medal 6th Position in Hockey

TWENTY-FIFTH OLYMPICS

Year

1992

Date

July 25 to August 9

Place

Barcelona (Spain)

Participating Countries

170

Players

12000 (including the officials)

Game Competitions

31

India’s Position

Did not win any medal

 

 

TWENTY-SIXTH OLYMPICS

Year

1996

Date

July 19 to August 4

Place

Atlanta (U.S.A.)

Participating Countries

197

Players

10700

Game Competitions

25

India’s Position

Leander Paes won a Bronze Medal (in Lawn Tennis)

 

 

TWENTY-SEVENTH OLYMPICS

Year

2000

Date

September 15 to October 1

Place

Sydney (Australia)

Participating Countries

199

Players

10500

Game Competitions

28

India’s Position

Karnama Malleshwari won a Bronze Medal in the Weight Lifting (in the 69 kg category)

 

 

TWENTY-EIGHTH OLYMPICS

Year

2004

Date

August 13 to August 29

Place

Athens (Egypt)

Participating Countries

202

Players

10500

Game Competitions

28

India’s Position

Major Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore won a Silver Medal (in Shooting).

 

 

TWENTY-NINTH OLYMPICS

Year

2008

Place

Beijing (China)

India’s Position

Abhinav Bindra won Gold Medal in shooting. Sushil Kumar won Bronze Medal in Wrestling and Vijendra Kumar won Bronze Medal in Boxing.

 

 

THIRTIETH OLYMPICS

Year

2012

Place (Proposed)

London

 

WINTER OLYMPIC GAMES

 

Winter Olympic Games were started in the year A.D. 1924. The first Games were held at Chamonix (France). The Winter Games are numbered in rotation as they are held. The programme at the winter games includes ice hockey, figure skating, speed skating, alpine skating, skiing, etc. Like the Summer Games, the winners of Winter Games are also awarded gold, silver and bronze medals, the XIX Winter Olympic Games were held in February 8, 2002 at Salt Lake City, Utah (USA). It saw the expansion of the Olympic programme to 78 events including the return of Skeleton and the introduction of women’s bobsleigh. Athletes form a record 18 nations earned gold medals.

VENUES OF WINTER OLYMPIC GAMES

YEAR

VENUE

YEAR

VENUE

1924

Chamonix, France

1928

St. Moritz, Switzerland

1932

Lake Placid, New York

1936

Garmisch-Parten Kirchen, Germany

1948

St. Mortiz

1952

Oslo, Norway

1956

Cortina d’ Ampezze, Italy

1960

Squaw Valley, California

1964

Innsburck, Austria

1968

Grenoble, France

1972

Sapporo, Japan

1976

Innsburck, Austria

1980

Lake Placid, New York

1984

Sarajevo, Yugoslavia

1988

Calgary, Alberta

1992

Albertville, France

1994

Lillehammer, Norway

1998

Nagono, Japan

2002

Salt Lake City, USA

2006

Turin, Italy

2010

Vancouver, Canada

 

 

 

 

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES AT OLYMPIC GAMES

(i)      There is no distinction based on caste, colour, creed in the Olympic family.

(ii)      All competitors have to be amateurs.

(iii)     To create worldwide amity, feelings of brotherhood and fairplay.

 

ASIAN GAMES

HISTORY: The idea of the Asian Games was first conceived by Prof. G.D. Sondhi. The suggestion for holding the Asian Games was first made in a conference of Asian countries held in New Delhi in 1947 and Jawaharlal Nehru suggested that it be called ‘Asian Games’. The first Asian Games were held at New Delhi in March 1951. Since then Asian Games are held every four years.

VENUES OF ASIAN GAMES

YEAR

VENUE

YEAR

VENUE

1951

New Delhi, India

1954

Manila, Philippines

1958

Tokyo, Japan

1962

Jakarta, Indonesia

1966

Bangkok, Thailand

1970

Bangkok, Thailand

1974

Tehran, Iran

1978

Bangkok, Thailand

1982

New Delhi, India

1986

Seoul, South Korea

1990

Beijing, China

1994

Hiroshima, Japan

1998

Bangkok, Thailand

2002

Busan (formerly-Pusan), South Korea

2006

Doha, Qatar

2010

Guangzhou, China

2014

Incheon, S. Korea (Scheduled)

 

 

 

BACKGROUND: First held as West Asian Games at New Delhi in 1934 in which India, Afghanistan, Palestine and Sri Lanka participated. In view of the enthusiasm it was decided to hold these games once in four years at mid-point between the Olympics. However, these games were abandoned during World War II.

It was Prof. Gurudutt Sondhi, a member of the IOC encouraged by the sport-lover Maharaja Yadvendra Singh of Patiala and supported by Pandit Nehru, tried to revive these games at the Asian Relations Conference (ARC) convened by Pt. Nehru at New Delhi in 1947. The Asian Athletic Federation (AAF) was formed in 1948 which decided to hold the first Athletic Championship at New Delhi in 1949. However, the plan did not materialize.

Again in February 1949, the AAF met at New Delhi where it was renamed as ‘Asian Games Federation’ (AGF). The AGF then decided to rename the Asian Athletic Championship as ‘Asian Games’. Subsequently Pt. Nehru suggested that these games be called ‘Asian Games’. The first President and Secretary of AGF were Maharaja Yadvendra Singh of Patiala and Prof. G.D. Sondhi respectively.

MOTTO, EMBLEM AND TORCH OF ASIAN GAMES

The AGF adopted ‘Ever Onward’ given by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru as the motto of the Asian Games. The Emblem is a bright full rising sun with interlocking rings. The Maharaja of Patiala (Yadvendra Singh) presented a Torch and a flag for the first Asian Games and since then they have been carried from country to country.

FIRST ASIAN GAMES: The first Asian Games were held in 1951 at the National Stadium, New Delhi and was inaugurated by Dr. Rajendra Prasad (first President of India). About 489 participants from 11 different nations participated in the Games.

NATIONS WHICH PARTICIPATED IN FIRST ASIAN GAMES: Afghanistan, Burma, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Nepal Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

SPORTS PLAYED IN THE FIRST ASIAN GAMES: Athletics, swimming, diving and waterpolo, cycling, weightlifting, football and basketball.

Pt. JAWAHARLAL NEHRU’s MESSAGE TO THE PARTICIPANTS OF THE FIRST ASIAN GAMES: “Play game in the spirit of the game.”

COMMONWEALTH GAMES

The Commonwealth Games are a festival of sports of the Commonwealth countries. The games are held once in four years but only in between the Olympic years. When the games first began, in1930, only 11 countries participated. The games were originally known as the British Empire Games. These have undergone a change of name and expanded into a major multiracial and cultural event.

VENUES OF COMMONWEALTH GAMES

YEAR

VENUE

YEAR

VENUE

1930

Hamilton, Canada

1934

London, England

1938

Sydney, Australia,

1942-46

Games were not held

1950

Auckland, New Zealand

1954

Vancouver, Canada

1958

Cardiff, Wales

1962

Perth, Australia

1966

Kingston, Jamaica

1970

Edinburgh, Scotland

1974

Christchurch, New Zealand

1978

Edmonton, Canada

1982

Brisbane, Australia

1986

Edinburgh, Scotland

1990

Auckland, New Zealand

1994

Victoria, Canada

1998

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2002

Manchester, England

2006

Melbourne, Australia

2010

New Delhi, India

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WORLD CUP FOOTBALL

The Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) was founded in Paris by representatives of seven countries – Belgium, Denmark, France, Netherland, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland on May 21, 1904. One 28th May 1928, the FIFA decided to stage a world championship of football and Uruguay was finally chosen as the host country in 1929. The original world cup trophy bore Frenchman Jules Rimet’s name since it was he who had proposed the tournament. The trophy was awarded to Brazil permanently in 1970, when it became the first country to win the world cup thrice. A new trophy called the ‘FIFA World Cup’ was put up for competition. Since 1930, only seven teams have been able to win the trophy. At the time of release of this look, South Africa is hosting the 2010 edition of the FIFA World Cup.

 

HISTORY OF WORLD CUP FOOTBALL

 

YEAR

HOST

WINNER

RUNNER-UP

1930

Uruguay

Uruguay

Argentina

1934

Italy

Italy

Italy Czechoslovakia

1938

France

Italy

Hungary

1950

Brazil

Uruguay

Brazil

1954

Switzerland

West Germany

Hungary

1958

Sweden

Brazil

Sweden

1962

Chile

Brazil

Czechoslovakia

1966

England

England

West Germany

1970

Mexico

Brazil

Italy

1974

West Germany

West Germany

Netherlands

1978

Argentina

Argentina

Netherlands

1982

Spain

Italy

West Germany

1986

Mexico

Argentina

West Germany

1990

Italy

West Germany

Argentina

1994

United States

Brazil

Italy

1998

France

France

Brazil

2002

South Korea and Japan

Brazil

Germany

2006

Germany

Italy

France

2010

South Africa

Spain

The Netherlands

 

 

HOCKEY WORLD CUP

The concept for an International hockey competition at the world level originated in a joint proposal made by India and Pakistan at an International Hockey Federation, FIH Council meeting on March 30, 1969. The first world cup was held in Barcelona (Spain) in 1971. From 1978 onwards, the tournament has been held once in four years. The eleventh Hockey World Cup was held in Germany in 2006. The twelfth Hockey World Cup will be held in India in 2010. India has won the tournament only once in 1975.

HISTORY OF HOCKEY WORLD CUP

YEAR

HOST

WINNER

RUNNER-UP

1971

Spain

Pakistan

Spain

1973

The Netherlands

The Netherlands

India

1975

Malaysia

India

Pakistan

1978

Argentina

Pakistan

The Netherland

1982

India

Pakistan

West Germany

1986

England

Australia

England

1990

Pakistan

The Netherland

Pakistan

1994

Australia

Pakistan

The Netherland

1998

The Netherlands

The Netherland

Spain

2002

Malaysia

Germany

Australia

2006

Germany

Germany

Australia

2010

India

Australia

Germany

 

SOUTH ASIAN FEDERATION (SAF) GAMES

The SAF games were first held in 1984 at Kathmandu, Nepal. The seven participating countries are India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Maldives. The motto of SAF games is ‘Peace, Prosperity and Progress’. The games year 1986 edition was not staged as it was a year of Commonwealth and Asian Games.

HISTORY OF SAF GAMES

YEAR

VENUE

RANKING 1st/2nd/3rd

1984

Kathmandu, Nepal

India/Sri Lanka/Pakistan

1985

Dhaka, Bangladesh

India/Pakistan/Bangladesh

1989

Calcutta, India

India/Pakistan/Sri Lanka

1989

Islamabad, Pakistan

India/Pakistan/Sri Lanka

1991

Colombo, Sri Lanka

India/ Sri Lanka/Pakistan

1993

Dhaka, Bangladesh

India/Pakistan/Sri Lanka

1995

Chennai, India

India/ Sri Lanka/Pakistan

1999

Kathmandu, Nepal

India/Nepal/Sri Lanka

2004

Islamabad, Pakistan

India/Pakistan/Sri Lanka

2010

Dhaka, Bangladesh

India/Pakistan/Bangladesh

MAJOR SPORTS DISCIPLINES

ACROBATICS

Although it only became a competitive sport, acrobatics has long been an important component of modern artistic sports, such as gymnastics, diving and figure skating. From Greek for “Walking on Tiptoe”, it includes a variety of maneuvers often with such apparatus as tight-ropes, trapezes, unicycle, falls, barrels and poles.

AEROBICS

The word Aerobics was coined by Dr. Kenneth H. Copper, a USA physician, to denote a system of exercise to help prevent coronary artery disease. In 1983, Howard and Karen Schwartz organized Sports fitness International (SFI) to oversee a new competitive sport they had developed, known as Sport Aerobics.

The first world championships were held in 1990 at San Diego with athletes from 15 countries competing.

ARCHERY

Archery is one of the most ancient of sports. During the Paleolithic era (35,000 to 8,000 B.C.), the use of bow and arrow for hunting probably developed independently in many places throughout the world.

The modern sport of target archery originated in England during the 14th century, when the longbow became the English army’s most important weapon, first at the Battle of Crecy (1346) and later at Politiers and Agincourt. From 1330 to 1414, English kings banned all other sports because they diverted time from archery and a royal decree of 1363 required all Englishmen to practice archery on Sunday and holidays. The International Archery Federation was established in 1931 to hold international archery competitions. In 1969, the Federation included field archery to the set of archery events in the world championship. Rules specified by the federation apply for all international tournaments. Archery is a medal sports in Summer Olympics.

AQUATICS

DIVING, SPRINGBOARD AND PLATFORM: Diving, springboard and platform, sport of entering the water from a raised position, often while executing tumbles, twists, and other acrobatic maneuvers. In most dives the upper part of the body enters the water first, and the arms are extended straight over the head. The earliest recorded major diving competition took place in 1871 off the London Bridge. Since then diving has become part of most aquatic meets and is a US intercollegiate event. Men’s diving became part of the Olympic games in 1904, when it was called fancy diving. Women’s diving joined the program in 1912; synchronized diving became a medal event in 2000.

SWIMMING: The English are considered the first modern society to develop swimming as a sport. By 1837, regular swimming competitions were being held in London’s six artificial pools, organized by the National Society in England. As the sport grew in popularity, many more pools were built, and when a new governing body, the Amateur Swimming Association of Great Britain, was organized in 1880, it numbers 300 member clubs.

In 1896, swimming became in Olympic sport for men with the 100 metres and 1500 metres free style competitions held in past to open water. Soon after, as swimming gained popularity, more freestyle event were added, followed by backstroke, breakstroke, butterfly and finally, the individual medley.

BADMINTON

The game is said to have been played in China in the 2nd millennium BC. However, the origin of modern badminton is attributed to Britain and its development took place in India. It was evolved in 1870 by some British officers serving in India and it was then called ‘Poona Game’ because of its popularity in Pune at that time. The first modern rules were drawn up in India (Pune) in 1876. The International Badminton Federation (IBF) was formed in 1934 when the rules of the game were standardized. Badminton was introduced in the Asian Games in 1962 at Jakarta (Indonesia) and made its debut in the Olympic Games at Barcelona in 1992. The First World Cup (Alba world cup) was won by Prakash Padukone in 1981 and the first Asian Championship was won by Dinesh Khanna in 1965 (for men) and Sarojini Apte and Meena Shah (for women).

NUMBER OF PLAYERS: The game is played in three ways:

(i)      Singles (one player on each side)

(ii)      Doubles (two players on each side)

(iii)     Mixed Doubles (one male and one female player on each side)

BASKETBALL

The Game was first played in the 10th century BC in Mexico. However, the credit of its invention is attributed to James Naismith of America (1891). Basket Ball was first played in India in 1930. It was introduced in the Berlin Olympics in 1936 for men and for women at the Montreal Games (1976) Basket Ball has been one of the sports, at the Asian Games, right from its inception (1951).

NUMBER OF PLAYERS: Two teams of five (women’s team has 6) players each. Teams however, have 12 players but at a time not more than five play the game.

BASEBALL

Baseball developed from variations of the English game of rounder, from related regional and local games, and from children’s games like “one old cat,” all of which had evolved through centuries. The traditional story that Abner Doubleday invented baseball in 1839 in Cooperstown, N.Y. has been discredited. Rather, in the 1840s Alexander Cartwright of the New York Knickerbockers Club standardized many of the features and field dimensions still in use today. It was widely thought than the first game of modern baseball was played by the knickerbockers in the fall of 1845 in a park called Elysian Fields in Hoboken, N.J. Sportswriter. Henry Chadwick wrote (1858) the first rule book, and though the rules continue to change by small degrees, by 1900 the game was essentially that of today.

BILLIARDS

Anyone of a number of games played with a tampered, leather-tipped stick called a cue and various numbers of balls on a rectangular, cloth-covered slate table with raised and cushioned edges. Games similar to billiards were popular in England and France in the 16th century, and evidence even suggests that a billiard like game was played in the 14th century. The country of origin is disputed – England, France, Italy, Spain and China have been credited by various historians with its invention. The game in its present form was probably fully developed by 1800. There are three main types of billiards: carom billiards, pocket billiards (also known as pool), and snooker. Carom billiards is played with three balls, a cue ball and two object balls, on a pocket-less table; scoring is by caroms only, i.e., by causing the cue ball to strike the object balls in specified ways. Pocket billiards is played with 15 object balls and a cue ball on a table with six pockets; the essential object of the game is to cause the object balls to enter the pockets. Snooker is similar to pocket billiards, except that it uses 21 object balls and smaller pockets.

BOXING

When boxing was first introduced at the Ancient Olympic Games, where Greek fighters wrapped leather strips around their hands and a match would not end until one competitor was beaten unconscious or raised his hand in surrender. The thought of going past 12 rounds is foreign to today’s boxing world, but in ancient times, 36 minutes would not even constitute a warm-up.

THE PLAYING RING AND EQUIPMENT: The ring is a square platform measuring 4.9 to 7.3 metres in each side, 3.4 feet above the ground, fastened by at least 3,4 ropes attached to the poles of each corner. The padded gloves worn by boxers weighs upto and including 67 kg – 9 ounces or 227 gm and over 67 kg – 10 ounces or 284 gm. Gum-shields protect the teeth and a Jockstrap may also be worn.

CRICKET

HISTORY: The game was first played in Guildford Surrey in 1550. It was brought to India by British merchants and officers. The game was played in India for the first time in 1721 by English merchants at Cambay. The first official test match between England and Australia was played in 1932. India also played its first Test March in 1932.

Now there are three types of cricket matches recognized internationally, viz.

(i)      First Class Cricket (duration 3-5 days)

(ii)      One Day Internationals

(iii)     Test Cricket (duration 5 days)

(iv)     T-20 Cricket (20 overs match)

NUMBER OF PLAYERS: Two teams of 11 players each.

KHO KHO:

Kho-Kho is an Indian game. It is popular in the whole of India. It originated at Pune Gymkhana in the State of Maharashtra. Its team in India is called Kho-Kho Federation of India (KKFI).

Kho-Kho is a game played in 2 innings by 12 nominated players out of 15, on each side. Initially 9 players start the game and 3 are kept reserve. One team becomes the chasers and the other the defenders or runners. In the game, the chaser pursues the runners: tags and touches them and makes them out. Each team has to chase and defend for 9 minutes twice in a match.

GOLF

It is a game of hitting a small hard ball with specially made clubs over an outdoor course sometimes (particularly if it is near the coast) called a links. The object is to deposit the ball in a specified number of cups, or holes, using as few strokes as possible. Although golf’s place of origin is uncertain, Scotland has the strongest claim. As early as 1457, it was banned there as a threat to archery practice, which was considered vital to national defence. The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews, Scotland (founded 1754), is the international shrine of golf, and the club’s basic rules are the worldwide standards.

HANDBALL

Handball is one of the world’s fastest games. It is played between two teams in which a ball is hit with the hand in a walled court. A team moves the ball by dribbling, passing or bouncing it as they run. Players may stop, catch, throw, bounce or strike the ball with any part of the body above the knees. Each team tries to score goals by directing the ball past the opposition’s goalkeeper into the net.

SOCCER

One of the earliest forms of Soccer in which players kicked a ball on a small field has been traced as far back as 1004 B.C. in Japan. The Munich Ethological Museum in Germany has a Chinese text from approximately 50 B.C. that mentions games very similar to soccer that were played between teams from China and Japan. The Chinese kicked a leather ball (filled) with hari and it is known for sure that a soccer game was played in 611 A.D. in the ancient Japanese capital, Kyoto.

A historical record of the development of soccer in England shows that Eton College had the earliest known rules of the game in 1815, perhaps implying that until then, chaos was preferred over order. But order gradually came to the game, and standardized rules known as the Cambridge rules were approved by England’s major colleges.

HOCKEY

A game resembling hockey was first played in ancient Egypt around 2050 B.C. The modern game was evolved in the British Isles. The first hockey club was the Blackheath and Abbey Hockey Club established in 1861. The English Hockey Association was formed at Cannon Street Hotel, London in 1875.

NUMBER OF PLAYERS: Two teams of 11 players each.

SQUASH

Squash is a racket sport that is played on an enclosed four-walled court. The ball can be bounced off any wall within the marked lines; every shot must come off the front wall before hitting the ground. It is normally played by two players, but doubles squash is also a recognized sport. The object of the game is to win points by ensuring that your opponent is unable to return your shot before the ball bounces twice.

Squash, or ‘Squash Rackets’ as it was known in its early days, was invented at Harrow School, England, around 1830 and grew gradually until the 1960s, when it suddenly exploded in popularity worldwide.

NUMBER OF PLAYERS: Squash is played by two players on an enclosed court with a floor area of 9.75 metres by 6.4 metres. The players strike the ball alternatively on to the front wall, which is 4.75 metres high and has an ‘out of bounds’ board measuring 480 mm across the bottom.

TABLE TENNIS

Played for the first time in 1880 in London. The English Table Tennis Association was formed in 1922. In India, table tennis dates back to 1911 and the Table Tennis Association of India (TTAI) was formed only in 1938. Although World Championships were held earlier, Table Tennis was introduced in the Olympic in 1988. The game was introduced in the Asian Games in 1958. So far India is the only country to have hosted the World Championship three times 1952, 1984-85 and 1986-87.

NUMBER OF PLAYERS: One player on each side in Single, Two players on each side in Doubles.

TENNIS

Originated in France sometime in 1050. Major Walter Wingfield named in Lawn Tennis in 1870. The first Tennis Club called Lamington Club was established in 1872.

Tennis was one of the disciplines in the inaugural Olympics in Athens in 1896 and it remained so till 1924. It was brought back to the Olympics in 1988 at Seoul. It was introduced in the Asian Games in 1958 at Tokyo.

NUMBER OF PLAYERS: Singles or doubles, with one or two players respectively on each side.

VOLLEYBALL

The game was invented by William G. Morgan of Massachusett (USA) in 1895 as an alternative to Basketball. The International Volleyball Association (IVA) was formed in Paris in April 1947. The World Championship for men began in 1949 and for women in 1952.

The first World Championship were held in 1949 in Prague. Volleyball made its entry into Olympics in 1964 at Tokyo into the Asian Games in 1958 (Tokyo).

NUMBER OF PLAYERS: Two teams of six players each.

  • BEACH VOLLEYBALL: Because of the many difficulties of playing outdoors, such as the sand, the sun and the wind, beach volleyball players must have outstanding ball skills and court speed.
  • REGULAR VOLLEYBALL: Matches are played best of five sets. The first four sets are played to 25 points, with the final set begin played to 15 points.

WATER POLO

It is thought that British resort owners invented this rather strange pastime during the mid-1899, in an attempt-however to attract guests. The first matches were played on nearby lakes and rivers, and the game’s passing similarly to horseback polo earned it the name “water polo”.

After the elimination of the paddles and barrels, the game was adapted to swimming pools in 1870 by the London Swimming Club, who hosted the first official game at the Crystal Palace Plunge in London.  Matches resembled rugby on water, and were based more on brute strength than athletic skill. Underwater wrestling bouts would leave some players barely conscious when they rose to the surface.

A common trick players used was to place the small ball in their swimming trunks and swim underwater towards the goal, where they would score by removing the ball and slamming it into the pool deck.

PLANNING AREA AND EQUIPMENT: Men’s game area in water 20 m to 30 m long and 8 to 20 m wide and women’s game are not exceeding 25 m by 17 m. the round water proof ball has a circumference of 0.68 to 0.71 m and weights 400 gm to 450 gm. Goals are 3 metre apart and generally 0.9 m above water level.

NUMBER OF PLAYERS: 6 players at any one time in the playing area excluding the goalie.

WEIGHTLIFTING

In weightlifting, the competitors aim to lift a weighted bar above the head and hold it under control until signaled by the referee to replaced it on the platform. Weightlifting is spilit into two separate lifts – the snatch, and the clean and jerk. Competitors get a maximum of three attempts at each lift.

As a basic athletic activity and a natural means to measure strength and power, the lifting of weights was present in both the ancient Egyptian and Greek societies.

Lifters perform two types of lifts – the snatch and the clean and jerk. In the snatch, they lift the bar to arm’s length above their head in one movement. In the clean and jerk, they lift the bar to their shoulders, stand up straight, then jerk the bar to arm’s length above their head.

WRESTLING

Wrestling is an individual combat sport fought between two wrestlers on a mat. They can use different styles and techniques in a bid to throw their opponent to the ground and pin him down to register a fall. The wrestler who achieves the fall is declared the winner of the bout.

With the possible exception of track and field (athletics), wrestling is the most ancient sport known to have been continuously practiced competitively. Wrestling was introduced into the ancient Olympics in 708 B.C.

Well before the inaugural modern Olympic Games of 1896, wrestling was as much a part of Greece’s cultural heritage as hockey has been to Canadians. Many experts regard wrestling as the world’s oldest competitive sport, and indeed, wall paintings in Egypt depicting grapplers date back 5,000 years.

But the original Greek Olympics but wrestling on the map in the ancient world, making its Olympic debut in the Games of 708 BC. It was apparently a much more violent, punishing sport in those early days, when it had closer ties to military training. Wrestling spread through the Roman World, as well as other early civilizations in India, China, Japan and throughout the middle East.

Wrestling died out with the Olympic Games in the Dark Ages, but it was natural that when organizers of the 1896 Olympics searched for sports with roots in antiquity, they looked to wrestling. It was the showpiece event of those Olympics, much as the 100 – metre final is in the present day Games.

TROPIES AND CUPS

INTERNATIONAL TROPHIES

 

  • American Cup                     :  Yacht Racing
  • Ashes                                 :  Cricket
  • Benson and Hedges            :  Cricket
  • Canada Cup                        :  Golf
  • Colombo Cup                     :  Football
  • Corbitton Cup                     :  Table Tennis (Women)
  • Davis Cup                           :  Horse Race
  • Grand National                    :  Horse Streple                                                 Chase Race
  • Jules Rimet Trophy              :  World Soccer Cup
  • King’s Cup                          :  Air Races
  • Merdeka Cup                      :  Football
  • Rydet Cup                          :  Golf
  • Swaythling Cup                   :  Table Tennis (Men)
  • Thomas Cup                       :  Badminton
  • U. Thant Cup                       :  Tennis
  • Uber Cup                            :  Badminton (Women)
  • Walker Cup                         :  Golf
  • Westchester Cup                 :  Polo
  • Wightman Cup                    :  Lawn Tennis
  • World Cup                          :  Cricket
  • World Cup                          :  Hockey
  • Reliance Cup                       :  Cricket
  • Rothman’s Trophy               :  Cricket
  • William’s Cup                      :  Basket Ball
  • European Champions Cup   :  Football
  • Eisenhower Cup                  :  Golf
  • Essandre Champions Cup   :  Hockey
  • Rene Frank Trophy              :  Hockey
  • Grand Prix                          :  Table Tennis
  • Edgbaston Cup                   :  Lawn Tennis
  • Grand Prix                          :  Lawn Tennis
  • World Cup                          :  Weight-lifting

 

NATIONAL TROPHIES

 

  • Agarwal Cup                       :  Badminton
  • Agha Khan Cup                   :  Hockey
  • All-India Women’s  Guru Nanak Championship         :           Hockey
  • Bandodkar Trophy               :  Football
  • Bangalore Blues Challenge Cup      :           Basketball
  • Barna-Bellack Cup               :  Table Tennis
  • Beighton Cup                    :  Hockey
  • Bombay Gold Cup               :  Hockey
  • Burdwan Trophy                :  Weight-lifting
  • Charminar Trophy               :  Athletics
  • Chadha Cup                       :  Badminton
  • C.K. Naydu Trophy             :  Cricket
  • Chakoia Gold Trophy           :  Football
  • Divan Cup                         :  Badminton
  • Deodhar Trophy                :  Cricket
  • Duleep Trophy                  :  Cricket
  • DCM Cup                          :  Football
  • Durand Cup                      :  Football
  • Dhyan Chand Trophy           :  Hockey
  • Dr. B.C. Roy Trophy            :  Football (Junior)
  • Ezra Cup                             :  Polo
  • FA Cup                               :  Football
  • GD Birla Trophy                  :  Cricket
  • Ghulam Ahmed Trophy        :  Cricket
  • Gurmeet Trophy                  :  Hockey
  • Guru Nanak Cup                  :  Hockey
  • Gyanuati Devi Trophy          :  Hockey
  • Holkar Trophy                     :  Bridge
  • Irani Trophy                         :  Cricket
  • IFA Shield                           :  Football
  • Indira Gold Cup                   :  Hockey
  • Jawaharlal Challenge           :  Air Racing
  • Jaswant Singh Trophy         :  Best Services Sportsman
  • Kuppuswamy Naidu Trophy :  Hockey
  • Lady RattanTata Trophy       :  Hockey
  • MCC Trophy                        :  Hockey
  • Moinuddaula Gold Cup        :  Cricket
  • Murugappa Gold Cup          :  Hockey
  • Modi Gold Cup                   :  Hockey
  • Narang Cup                         :  Badminton
  • Nehru Trophy                      :  Hockey
  • Nixan Gold Cup                   :  Football
  • Obaid Ullah Gold Cup          :  Hockey
  • Prithi Singh Cup                  :  Polo
  • Rani Jhansi Trophy              :  Cricket
  • Ranjit Trophy                       :  Cricket
  • Rangaswami Cup                :  Hockey
  • Ranjit Singh Gold Cup         :  Hockey
  • Rajendra Prasad Cup           :  Tennis
  • Ramanujan Trophy               :  Table Tennis
  • Rene Frank Trophy              :  Hockey
  • Radha Mohan Cup               :  Polo
  • Raghbir Singh Memorial       :  Football
  • Rohinton Baria Trophy         :  Cricket
  • Rovers Cup                         :  Football
  • Sanjay Gold Cup                 :  Football
  • Santosh Trophy                   :  Football
  • Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee       :  Football
  • Suboroto Cup                     :  Football
  • Scindia Gold Cup                :  Hockey
  • Sahni Trophy                       :  Hockey
  • Sheesh Mahal Trophy          :  Cricket
  • Todd Memorial Trophy         :  Football
  • Tommy Eman Gold Cup      :  Hockey
  • Vittal Trophy                       :  Football
  • Vizzy Trophy                       :  Cricket
  • Vijay Merchant Trophy         :  Cricket
  • Wellington Trophy               :  Rowing
  • Wills Trophy                        :  Cricket

 

 

 

 

PLACES ASSOCIATED WITH SPORTS

SPORT

ASSOCIATED PLACES 77

Baseball

Boxing

Brooklyn (USA)

1.Madison Square Garden (USA)

2. Yankee Stadium, New Delhi

Cricket

1. Aden Park (Auckland)

2. Brabourne Stadium (Mumbai)

3. Chepauk Ground (Chennai)

4. Eden Gardens (Kolkata)

5. Ferozeshah Kotla Ground (Delhi)

6. Green Park (Kanpur)

7. Leeds (London, England)

8. Lord’s (London, England)

9. Nehru Stadium (Chennai and New Delhi)

10.  Melbourne (Australia)

11.  Old Trafford (Manchester, England)

12.  Oval (London, England)

13.  Wankhede Stadium (Mumbai)

Football

1. Brookland (England)

2. Wembley (London)

3. Blackheath (London)

4. Twickenham (London)

5. Corporation Stadium (Kolkata)

6. Ambedkar Stadium (New Delhi)

7. Nehru Stadium (New Delhi)

8. Yuva Bharti Stadium (Kolkata)

Golf

Sanday Lodge (Scotland)

Greyhound Race

White City (England)

Hockey

1. Dhayn Chand Stadium (Lucknow)

2. Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium (Hyderabad)

3. Merdeka Stadium (Kuala Lumpur)

4. National Stadium (New Delhi)

5. Nehru Stadium (New Delhi)

6. Sawai Man Singh Stadium (Jaipur)

7. Shivaji Stadium (New Delhi)

Horse Racing

1. Aintree (England) – Grand National Race

2. Doncaster (England) Derby Race

3. Epsom (England) – Derby Race

Pole

Hurlingham (England)

Shooting

Bisley (England)

Sking

Florence (Chadwick)

Snooker

Blackpool (England)

Swimming and Rowing

1. Cape Gris Nez (Cross-channel swimming)

2. Putney-Mort-Lake (England)

Tennis

1. Wimbledon (England)

2. Forest Hill (US)

 

NATIONAL SPORTS AND GAMES

COUNTRY

NATIONAL SPORT

COUNTRY

NATIONAL SPORT

Australia

Tennis & Cricket

Canada

Lacrosse

China

Table Tennis

England

Cricket, Football

India

Hockey, Kabaddi

Japan

Judo

Malaysia

Badminton

Scotland

Rugby, Football

Spain

Bull Fighting

USA

Baseball

Former Soviet

Union Football

 

 

 

NUMBER OF PLAYERS IN SOME POPULAR SPORTS/GAMES

SPORTS

Number of Players (on each side or in each team)

Baseball

9

Rugby football

15

Polo

4

Water Polo

7

Kho Kho

9

Kabaddi

7

Hockey, Football (soccer), Cricket

11

Netball

7

Volleyball

6

Tennis and Table Tennis

1 or 2 (Single & Doubles respectively)

Basketball

5

Gymnastic

Several individuals compete simultaneously

Billiards/Snooker

1

Boxing/Chess

1

Bridge

2

Croquet

13 of 15

Golf

Several individuals compete simultaneously

Lacrosse

12

GROUND OF SPORTS AND GAMES

SPORT/GAME

GROUND

SPORT/GAME

GROND

Athletics

Track

Badminton

Court

Baseball

Diamond

Boxing

Ring

Cricket

Pitch (Field)

Football

Field

Golf

Course

Handball

Court

Hockey

Field

Ice Hockey

Ring

Lawn Tennis

Court

Skating

Ring

Wrestling

Ring Arena

 

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