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INDIA : AGRICULTURE
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Thursday, 24 May 2012 04:58


INDIA : AGRICULTURE

INSTITUTION

HEAD OFFICE

National Centre of Organic Farming

Ghaziabad

Initially National Biofertilizer Development Centre Renamed in 2004.

National Plant Protection Training Inst.

Hyderabad (1966)

Recognized as regional training centre for plant protection by FAO.

Directorate of Marketing & Inspection

Faridabad

Empowered to fix the ‘Agmark’ standards.

National Institute of Agricultural Mkg.

Jaipur

(8 Aug., 1988) Managed by governing body under chairmanship of Agriculture Minister.

Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC)

New Delhi (18 Jan., 1994)

Registered  society with members including RBI, SBI, IDBI, Exim Bank, OBC, NABARD, Canara Bank, NAFED, United Phosphorus Ltd.

Central Frozen Semen Production & Training Institute

Hessarghatta Karnataka

Random Sample Poultry Performance Testing Centre

Gurgaon

Central Sheep Breeding Farm

Hissar

National Institute of Animal Health

Baghpat (U.P.)

Disease investigation Laboratory

Pune

Animal Health Institute

Jallandhar

Institute of Animal Health & Biologicals

Bangalore

Institute of Veterinary Biologicals

Khanapara, Guwahati

Central Institute of Fisheries, Nautical and Engineering Training

Kochi

Integrated Fisheries Project

Kochi

Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for Fisheries

Bangalore

Vivekananda Parvathiya Krishi Anusandhan Shala

Almora

Central Agriculture Research Institute

Port Blair

Central Agricultural University

Imphal

1. The total area covered under food-grains in 2009-10 has been reported as 121.37 million hectares against 1222.83 million hectares in 2008-09.

2. 4% annual growth during the 11th five year plan has been targeted in agricultural sector.

3. Agriculture and allied sectors 17.1 per cent of Gross Domestic Product 2008-09. An all time record in production of food-grains of 233.88 million tonnes is estimated in 2008-09 as per 4th Advance Estimates 55.7 per cent of area sown is dependent on rainfall.

4. Government of India constituted a Task Force under the Chairmanship of Prof. A. Vaidyanathan in 2004 to suggest an implementable plan of action to revive the rural cooperative credit institutions.

5. The Central Government has taken a lead in providing required autonomy to the cooperatives by enacting MSCS Act, 2002, replacing the MSCS Act, 1984. It aims at providing functional autonomy.

6. Centrally Sponsored Scheme on National Food Security Mission (NFSM) has been launched in the country to enhance the production of rice, wheat and pulses by 10, 8 and 2 million tonnes respectively by the end of 11th Plan.

7. India is the third largest producer and consumer of fertilizers in the world after China and the U.S.A.

8. National Project on Organic Farming was launched during 10th Plan. The earlier scheme “National Project on Development and Use of Biofertilizers” has been merged with the “National Project on Organic Farming”.

9. A Centrally Sponsored Scheme, “National Project on Management of Soil Health and Fertility” (NPMSF) has been approved during 2008-09 for the remaining period of XI Plan.

10. The Department of Agriculture and Corporation is preparing National e-Governance Plan in Agriculture with the help of National Institute of Smart Government (NISG), Hyderabad. It is being implemented in two phases.

11. Kisan Call Centres was launched on 21st January, 2004. It aims to provide online information to farmers through toll free No.1880-180-1551. Whole country is covered under the Scheme.

12. Organized marketing of agricultural commodities has been promoted in the country through a network of regulated       markets. A capital investment subsidy scheme titled ‘Construction of Rural Godowns’ is being implemented w.e.f. 1 April, 2001.

13. India is endowed with the largest livestock population in the world.

14. India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world.

15. The Livestock Insurance Scheme was Implemented in all the States except Goa.

16. The National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding envisages 100 per cent grant in aid to implementing agencies.

17. India’s share of the world trade in poultry and poultry products is very small. Recently Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved the Centrally Sponsored Scheme. “Poultry Development” from third year of XI Five Year Plan, i.e., 2009-10.

18. The Indian dairy industry has acquired substantial growth from the Eighth Plan onwards. India’s milk output has not only placed the industry first in world.

19. The first outbreak of Avian Influenza in India was reported in February, 2006 in Nandurbar district of Maharashtra and Surat district of Gujarat.

20. Bt-cotton variety Bikaneri Nerma and NRH 44 Bt Cotton hybrid and Mustard hybrids developed.

21. ICAR has achieved a unique scientific landmark recently with the birth of the first cloned buffalo calf in the world.           The first calf born in February, 2009 died due to Pneumonia, but the second cloned buffalo calf born on 6th June, 2009 is quite hail and healthy.

INDIA’S POSITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

ITEM

% SHARE

RANK

INDIA’s POSITION NEXT TO

AREA

Total Area

2.5

Seventh

Russian, Federation, Canada, U.S.A., China, Brazil, Australia.

Arabic Area

2.3

Second

U.S.A

Irrigated Area

20.2

First

POPULATION

Total

16.7

Second

China

Agriculture

23

Second

China

ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE POPULATION

(A) Total Cereals

11.1

Third

China, U.S.A.

Wheat

11.7

Second

China

Rice (Paddy)

22.3

Second

China

Coarse Grains

3.3

Fourth

China, Brazil, Russian Federation

Total Pulses

21.2

First

(B) Oil Seeds

Ground Nut

17.1

Second

China

Rapeseed

11.1

Fourth

China, Canada, Germany

FRUITS & VEGETABLES

Vegetables & Melons

9.7

Second

China

Fruits Excluding Melons

10.5

Second

China

Potatoes

8.1

Third

China, Russian Federation

Onion (Dry)

10.6

Second

China

COMMERCIAL CROPS

Sugarcane

22.8

Second

Brazil

Tea

28.1

First

Coffee (green)

4.3

Sixth

Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico

Jute & Jute like Fibres

61.2

First

Cotton (Lint)

8.3

Fourth

China, USA, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico

ANIMAL PRODUCTS

Total Milk (000 MT)

14.4

First

Eggs Total (Million)

3.4

Fifth

China, USA, Russian Federation

Total Meat (000 MT)

2.1

Seventh

China, USA, Brazil, Germany, France

THREE LARGEST PRODUCING STATES OF IMPORTANT CROPS

CROPS/GROUPS OF CROPS

STATES

Rice

West Bengal, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh

Wheat

Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana

Maize

Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka

Total Coarse Cereals

Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Karnataka

Total Pulses

Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra

Total Food-grains

Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, West Bengal

Groundnut

Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh

Soyabean

Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan

Sunflower

Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra

Total Oilseeds

Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan

Sugarcane

Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka

Cotton

Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh

Jute

West Bengal, Bihar, Assam

Potato

Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar

Onion

Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka

1. The Macro Management of Agriculture (MMA) Centrally Sponsored Schemes formulated with the objective to ensure that the central assistance is spent on focused and specific interventions for development of agriculture in areas of priority of different States.

2. The achievement in the development of horticulture is laudable, as the sector now contributes more than 30.5 percent to GDP of agriculture and has maintained the growth rate of more than 5 per cent during the last two decades.

3. Fruits and vegetables, together, constitute about 92 per cent of the total horticultural production in the country. The area under fruit crops is 6.36 million hectare with a production of 71.31 million tones which contributes 31.75 per cent share in total production.

4. Among the horticulture produce, vegetable is very important sector, which occupies 8.14 million hectare with total production of 132.28 million tones having a productivity of 16.5 tones/hectare.

5. India occupies the second position in the production of brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower and onion and third in potato and tomato in the world. Vegetables that are produced in abundance are potato, tomato, brinjal, okra, cucurbits, etc.

6. National Horticulture Mission was launched during the year 2005-06 with objective of providing holistic growth to the horticulture sector through an area based, regionally differentiated strategy, supply of quality planting material production and productivity improvement, technology promotion, extension, post harvest management and marketing.

7. This mission was launched during the financial year 2001-02 to achieve overall development of horticulture in 8 states to harness the potential that exists in the North East region. The Scheme was further extended to three other hilly States namely Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal during 2003-04.

8. The National Bamboo Mission was launched in 2006-07as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme to promote the growth of bamboo sector. The programmes address four major areas of bamboo development namely

(i) Research and Development,

(ii) Plantation Development,

(iii) Handicrafts Development and

(iv) Marketing.

9. The National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) Act, 1962 has been amended vide NCDC (Amendment) Act, 2002 expanding the mandate of NCDC to include food stuff, industrials goods, livestock andservices in the progammes and activities in addition to the existing programmes.

10. In pursuance of recommendations made by the Vaidyanathan Committee Task Force, the Government of India had approved a Revival Package for Short Term Cooperative Credit Structure (STCCS) which aims at making it a well managed and vibrant structure to best serve the credit needs of Rural India. Revival Package envisages an outlay of Rs.13,595 crore for recapitalization of STCCS, capacity building and training and computerization subject to legal reforms by the State Governments.

11. A rehabilitation Package of Rs. 16978.69 crore of 31 suicide prone Districts in the four States, namely, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kerala is under implementation. The rehabilitation package aims at establishing a sustainable and viable farming and livelihood support system through debt relief to farmers, improved supply of institutional credit.

12. The National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS), is being implemented in the country since Rabi 1999-2000, as a part of risk management in agriculture with the intention of providing financial support to the farmers in the   event of failure of crops as a result of natural calamities, pests and diseases. Loanee farmers are covered on compulsory basis in a notified area for notified crops whereas for non loanee farmers scheme is voluntary.

13. Based on the recommendations of the Joint Group constituted study the improvements required in the existing crop insurance schemes and views / comments of various stake-holders, a proposal on Modified National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (MNAIS) has been prepared which is under consideration of the Government.

14. The pilot Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) is being implemented in the 15 States during Kharif 2010 season by Agricultural Insurance Company of India (AIC) and private General Insurance Company like ICICI-LOMBARD, IFFCO-TOKIO and MS Cholamdalam General Insurance Company to provide insurance protection to the farmers against adverse weather incidence, such as deficit and excess rainfall, high or low temperature, humidity, etc.

15. The Coconut Palm Insurance Scheme (CPIS) is launched on pilot basis during yeas 2009-10 and 2010-11 in the selected areas of Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha and Tamil Nadu to cover Coconut Palms. The farmer should have at least 10 healthy nut bearing Palms in the age group of 4 to 60 years in     contiguous area.

16. The National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development (NOVOD) board was constituted on 8th March, 1984 under the National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oil Development Board Act, 1983 as a statutory body for the integrated development of oilseeds and vegetable oil industry under the control of the Union Government consisting of 36 members headed by the Union Ministers of Agriculture as Chairman and ten members headed by the Union Ministers of Agriculture as Chairman and ten member in its Managing Committee headed by Secretary (Agriculture and Cooperation) as Chairman.

17. Rainfed agriculture is characterized by low levels of productivity and low input usage. The bulk of the rural poor, live in the rainfed regions.

18. The National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) was launched in the VIII Plan period and has been subsumed under Macro Management of Agriculture (MMA) since November, 2000. The board objective are:

(i) Conservation, upgradation and sustainable utilization of natural resources,

(ii) enhancement of agricultural productivity in sustainable manner,

(iii) restoration of ecological balance in the degraded and fragile rainfed eco-systems.

19. Organized marketing of agriculture commodities has been promoted in the country through a network of regulated markets. Most of the State Governments and Union Territories have enacted legislations (APMC Act) to provide the regulation of agricultural produce markets.

20. The National Institute of Agricultural Marketing (NIAM) is premier national level Institute set up by the Government of India in August 1988 to offer specialized Training, Research, Education and Consultancy in Agricultural Marketing.

21. The Small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) was registered by Department of Agriculture & Cooperation as a Society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 on January, 1994.

22. In pursuance to the resolution of National Development Council (NDC) to launch a Food Security Mission in the country for enhancing the production of rice, wheat and pulses by 10, 8 and 2 million tons respectively by the end of 11th Plan, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme on ‘National Food Security Mission (NFSM)’ is under implementation by the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation in 17 States. The NFSM has three components viz. NFSM –    Rice, NFSM – Wheat and NFSM – Pulses.

23. Mini Mission II Technology Mission on Cotton (TMC): The Scheme provides assistance for extension and development activities such as transfer of technology through frontline demonstrations as well as training of farmers through Farmers’ Field Schools, training of facilitators plant protection measures like Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM), Integrated Pest Management (IPM) demonstrations, supply of bio-agents, bio-pesticides, etc.

24. For increasing the production and productivity of Cereals Crop, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Integrated Development Programme in Rice / Wheat Based Cropping System Areas (ICDP – Rice / Wheat) under Macro Management is being implemented.

25. India is the third largest producer of fertilizers after China and USA and second largest consumer after China in the world. Against 22.57 million tones of fertilizer nutrients (NPK) consumed during 2007-08, the nutrient consumption was 24.91 million tones.

26. Presently urea is the only fertilizer which is under Statutory Price Control. To ensure adequate availability of fertilizers to farmers at reasonable rates, subsidy is provided by Government of India.

27. Animal Husbandry and Dairy Development plays a prominent role in the rural economy in supplementing the income of rural households.

28. India is endowed with the largest livestock population in the world. It accounts for 57 percent of the world’s buffalo population and 14 per cent of the cattle population.

29. The present availability of animal protein in an Indian diet is around 11.3 per person per day, as against a world average of 29 gm.

30. Livestock sector not only provides essential protein and nutritious human diet through milk, eggs, meat, etc., but also play an important role in utilization of non-edible agricultural by-products. Livestock also provides raw material by products such as hides and skins, blood, bone, fat etc.

31. The Government of India introduced a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, Livestock Insurance, on pilot basis during the years 2005-06 and 2006-07 in 100 selected district of the country.

32. In view of the importance of Livestock sector to the National economy and considering the short span of re-productivity and life of domestic animal, it was decided by the Government to conduct the Livestock Census.

33. The first Livestock Census was conducted during 1919-1920 and since then it is being conducted quinquennially by all States / UTs in India. So far 18 such Censuses have been conducted and the latest one is 18th Livestock Census in the series with 15/10/2007 as the date of reference.

34. The results of 18th Livestock Census would be brought out in two phases viz. (1) All India Report (Provisional) based on Quick Tabulation Plan derived from Village level totals and (2) All India Reports (Final Results), derived from computerized household data. All India Report (Provisional) is expected to be finalized shortly.

35. India, has a poultry population of 556.40 million and egg production is estimated at more than 53.6 billion. India ranks among the top three countries in egg production in the world and has around 3 percent of the total chicken population of the world.

36. The boiler production is growing at the rate of nearly 8 per cent every year. India is the fifth largest indigenous chicken meat producer in the World after US, China, Brazil and Mexico, comprising of 3 per cent of total world production.

37. According to Livestock census 2003, there are about 61.47 million sheep and 124.36 million goats in the country.About five million households in the country are engaged in the rearing of small ruminants (sheep & goats) and   other allied activities.

38. To bring about structural changes in unorganized sector, measures like milk processing at village level, marketing of pasteurized milk in a cost effective manner, quality up-gradation of traditional technology to handle commercial scale using modern equipments and management skills, a new scheme viz. Dairy Venture Capital Fund was initiated in the Tenth Five Year Plan.

39. Government is also examining launching a National Dairy Plan with an outlay of more than Rs. 17,371 crore to    achieve a target of 180 million tones of Milk producing annually by 2021-22.

40. The Ongoing Scheme on Development of Freshwater Aquaculture and integrated Coastal Aquaculture have been combined with four new programmes on Development of Coldwater Fish Culture, Development of Water-logged area and Derelict water bodies into aquaculture estates. Use of Inland Saline/Alkaline soil for Aquaculture and programme for augmenting the Productivity of Reservoirs. This scheme broadly has two components: Aquaculture and inland capture fisheries.

41. National Fisheries Development Board was established to work towards blue revolution with a focus on to increase the fish production of the country to a level of 10.3 million tones, to achieve double the exports from 7,000 crores to 14,000 crores and direct employment to an extent of 3.5 million by extending assistance to the various agencies for implementation of activities under Inland, Brackish Water and Marine Sectors.

42. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is an apex national organization for conducting and coordinating research and education in agriculture including animal husbandry and fisheries and allied sciences.

43. Towards empowerment of rural women, KVKs (Krishi Vigyan Kendras) have also asserted 99 technologies under the thematic area of drudgery reduction, health and nutrition involving 280 locations.

44. Research for Tribal and Hilly Regions: The Research carried out at institute in North-West Himalayas led to release of 10 varieties / hybrids of different crops for different agro-climatic regions of the country.

The institute has produced piglets out of AI with Frozen Semen. Boar semen was successfully frozen using conventional method of Freezing that does not involve costly equipment like programmable call freezer.

Sl. No.

Revolution

Field

1.

Green Revolution

Food grains

(Father of Green Revolution – N.E. Borlang)

(Father of Green Revolution in India – M.S. Swaminathan)

2.

White Revolution

Milk

(Father of White Revolution – V. Kurien)

3.

Blue Revolution

Fisheries

4.

Brown Revolution

Food Processing/ Fertilizers

5.

Yellow Revolution

Oil Seeds

6.

Golden Revolution

Horticulture

7.

Round Revolution

Potato

8.

Rainbow Revolution

Overall development of agricultural sector

9.

Black Revolution

Petroleum Products

Last Updated on Thursday, 24 May 2012 05:09
 

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