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INDIA : HEALTH AND FAMILY
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Thursday, 24 May 2012 04:39

 

INDIA : HEALTH AND FAMILY


Institution

Establishment and Head Office

Central Health Education Bureau

New Delhi, 6 Dec., 1956

Interpret plans, programmes, achievement of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

National Academy of Medical Science

New Delhi, 1961

National Institute of Ayurveda

Jaipur

National Institute of Siddha

Chennai

National Institute of Unani Medicine

Bangalore

Morarji Desai National Institute of Yoga

New Delhi

National Institute of Naturopathy

Pune

National Institute of Homeopathy

Kolkata

Rashtriya Ayurvedic Vidyapeeth

New Delhi

The Institute of Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurved

Jamnagar (Gujarat)

PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ON HEALTH AS PER CENT OF GDP

Year

Health

Health & Related Inputs**

Centre

State

Total

Centre

State

Total

2005-06

0.29

0.67

0.96

0.53

1.21

1.74

2006-07

0.29

0.67

0.96

0.53

1.21

1.74

2007-08

0.32

0.70

1.02

0.59

1.29

1.88

2008-09

0.35

0.71

1.06

0.63

1.28

1.91

2009-10*

0.39

0.70

1.09

0.66

1.30

1.96

*Provisional

**Besides expenditure by health and family welfare departments, this includes estimated expenditure on RSBY, water supply, sanitation and nutrition.

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare comprises the following departments: Department of Health and Family Welfare, Department of AYUSH, Department of Health Research and Department of AIDS control.

Healthcare is one of the 7 thrust areas under the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) and improvement in health continues to be an important part in the overall strategy for socio-economic development over the planning period. The special focus given to Health Sector in the NCMP has formed the core of the programmes formulated under both Health and Family Welfare.

The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) launched by PM on 12th April, 2005, is the key plan for giving effect to the mandate of the NCMP. The NRHM also provides an overarching umbrella to the existing programmes of Health and Family Welfare including RCH-II, Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, TB, Leprosy, NPCB and the Integrated Disease Surveillance Project. It also addresses the issue of health in the context of a sector wide approach encompassing sanitation and hygiene, nutrition and safe drinking water as basic determinants of good health and also advocates greater convergence with related social sector Departments. The core strategies of the Mission include identification and selection of the Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA), decentralized planning, strengthening of existing infrastructure like sub-centres, PHCs and CHCs, adoption of a sector wide approach, flexible financing, community participation, manpower development and partnership with non-government stakeholders. Maternal and child health will be given a basic thrust on the programme front. Monitoring would be community based and through stringent internal reviews and external surveys. The NRHM is about increasing public expenditure on health care from the current 0.9% of the GDP to 2 to 3 per cent.

The Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY) is a major initiative for developing tertiary healthcare in the country. It is also expected to reduce imbalance in human resources development by providing health care services through establishment of medical colleges and an improved delivery of services. Under PMSSY, 6 All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS) like institutions are to be set up and 13 medical colleges upgrades.

The general condition of India’s population has improved significantly since the 1990s. The average life expectancy at birth has increased from 59.7 years in 1991 to 63.7 years for males and 60.9 to 66.9 years during the same period for females. Infant mortality, crude birth rate and death rates have also registered a decline during the period.

The major areas of current focus include continued high morbidity due to communicable diseases, rising disease burden due to non-communicable diseases and nutritional problems. The unmet need for contraception and high unwanted fertility are the other areas of major concern.

NATIONAL VECTOR BORNE DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMME

The Directorate of National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme in the national nodal agency for prevention and control of major vector borne diseases of public health importance namely Malaria, Filaria, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis (J.E.) Dengue/Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Chikungunya.

Malaria

Malaria is an acute parasitic illness caused by Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax. Nine major species of anopheline mosquitoes, transmit malaria in India. The high transmission areas are the North Eastern States and largely tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha and Rajasthan. A Grant Agreement was signed with Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) on 27th June, 2005 for the implementation of Intensified Malaria Control Project (IMCP) in NE States (except Sikkim), selected high risk areas of Odisha, Jharkhand and West Bengal. In 100 districts in 8 states, namely Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha and Rajasthan, 1045 PHCs predominantly inhabited by tribal were also provided 100 percent support including operational expenses under the Enhanced Malaria Control Project (EMCP) with World Bank assistance, since 1997. World Bank New Project on “Malaria Control and Kala-ajar Elimination” for a period of 5 years w.e.f. 2008-09 (commencing from 1st September, 2008) has been approved by World Bank.

Filaria

Lymphatic Filariasis is a serious debilitating and incapacitating disease. The transmission of filarial is through mosquitoes called Culex quinquefasciatus. The disease is targeted for Global Elimination by 2020 through annual Mass Day Administration (MDA) of single dose of anti-filarial drug. In this context, a pilot project on single dose annual mass DEC drug administration was undertaken during 1997. The National Health Policy (2002) envisaged a goal of Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination from the country by the year 2015. In pursuance of this, Government of India launched the campaign of an annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a single dose of Diethycarbamazine citrate tablets – the antifilaria drug in the year 2004. A population of 276.7 million was covered against eligible population of 378.1 (excluding pregnant women, children below 2 years and seriously ill persons) million indicating the coverage rate of 73.19% (against eligible population). The disease is endemic in 250 districts in 20 states and UTs.

Dengue Fever/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever

Dengu fever is a viral disease, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The first out break of Dengue Fever / DHF was reported from Kolkata in 1963. All the four serotypes of dengue are prevalent in India. In recent years, Dengue is increasingly being reported from peri-urban and rural areas. The most affected areas are West Bengal, Delhi, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana enactment and enforcement of appropriate Civic bye-laws and Building bye-laws should stressed upon in all areas to prevent mosquitogenic conditions in line with the Delhi, Mumbai, Goa and Chandigarh health administrations.

Chikungunya

Chikungunya is a non-fatal viral illness caused by Chikungunya virus which has occurred in India during 2006 after a gap of 32 years. It resembles dengue fever. It is spread by the bite of female Aedes mosquitoes. Both Ae. Aegypti and Ae. Ajbopictus can transmit the disease.

Japanese Encephalitis (JE)

Japanese Encephalitis is a zoonotic disease which is transmitted by vector mosquito mainly belonging to culex vishnui group. The transmission cycle is maintained in the nature by animal reservoirs of JE virus like pigs and water birds.

Japanese Encephalitis is an acute viral illness with high case fatality and long term complications. The vector breeds in large paddy fields and similar large water bodies. The vector is an outdoor rester and feeder. The disease has acquired serious magnitude in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Bihar, Goa and Haryana. There is no specific treatment for JE. Efforts were made by states and Government of India to contain JE outbreaks by instituting various public health measures including selective JE vaccination. Considering the value of vaccination in prevention of JE, the Centre launched a JE vaccination programme during 2006 for children between 1 and 15 years of age in 11 districts of the 5 states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, Karnataka and West Bengal with using single dose live attenuated SA-14-14-2 vaccine. The programme expanded to 27 districts in 9 states during 2008.

Kala-azar

Kala-azar is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani transmitted by sandflies Phlebotomus argentipes. The disease is chronic and if not treated, leads to death. Kala-azar is endemic in Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and parts of Uttar Pradesh. The National Health Policy 2002 envisaged a goal of Kala-azar Elimination by the year 2010. To pursue the goal of elimination of Kala-azar by the year 2010, the Government of India is providing 100% support to endemic states since 2003.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in India. India accounts for one-fifth of the global TB incidence and is estimated to have the highest number of active TB cases amongst all the countries of the World.

To control TB, National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTCP) is launched in 1962 followed by a review it was replaced Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP), which is an application to India of WHO recommended strategy of Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse (DOTS), was launched in the country on 26th March, 1997. RNTCP was implemented in a phased manner and by 23rd March, 2006 the entire country had been covered under RNTCP.

National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP)

The National Leprosy Eradication Programme was launched by the Government of India in 1955 based on Depsone Monotherapy. Multi Drug Therapy (MDT) came into wide use from 1982 after which the programme was re-named as the National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP) in 1983.  NLEP was decentralized to States/District and Leprosy services were integrated with General Health Care System 2001-2002 onwards. Free Multi Drug Therapy (MDT) is being provided at all sub-centres, PHCs, Government Hospitals and dispensaries on all working days. Subsequent to the introduction of NRHM, Leprosy programme has also been an essential part of the Mission.

The IEC activities have been intensified and special IEC drive on the theme ‘Towards leprosy free India’ has been launched since January, 2008. As on March, 2009, 32 States / UTs have achieved the goal of leprosy elimination. The remaining 3 States / UTs viz. Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Dadra and Nagar Haveil are having PR more than 1 per 10,000 population.

National Programme for Control of Blindness

National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB) was launched in the year 1976 as a 100% Centrally Sponsored scheme with the goal to reduce the prevalence of blindness to 0.3% by 2020.

Pilot Project on Prevention and Control of Human Rabies: To prevent human deaths due to rabies a pilot project has been initiated as a ‘New Initiative’ in the 11th Five Year Plan since March 2008, to be completed by March 2010. National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD) is the nodal agency to coordinate various activities under the project. It is being carried out in five cities viz; Ahemdabad, Bangalore, Delhi, Pune and Mumbai.

Pilot Project on Prevention and Control of Leptospirosis: To prevent morbidity and mortality due to Leptospirosis in human, a pilot project has been initiated as a ‘New Initiative’ in the 11th Five Year Plan for two years (March 2008 to March 2010). NCDC is the nodal agency and the three states under the project are Gujarat, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

National Tobacco Control Programme: A comprehensive tobacco control legislation titled “The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products” (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 was notified in the official gazette on 19th May, 2003. The Act is applicable to whole of India and covers all types of tobacco products. Pilot phase of National Tobacco Control Programme was launched in 2007-08.

ANIMAL DISEASES, HUMAN DISEASES AND DEFICIENCY DISEASES

ANIMAL DISEASES

DISEASES

PATHOGEN RESPONSIBLE

Food and mouth disease

Virus

Rinderpest (cattle plague)

Virus

Blue Tongue

Virus (transmitted by mosquitoes)

Cow Pox (Vaccinia)

Vaccinia Virus

Ranikhet Disease (New castle Disease)

Virus

March’s Disease (Fowl paralysis)

Virus

Fowl plague

Virus

Fowl Pox (Avian diphtheria)

Virus

Tuberculosis

Bacteria (transmitted by infected milk and milk products)

Anthrax (splenic fever)

Anthrax Bacillus

Blackquarter (Black leg)

Bacteria: Clostridium chauvoei

Mastitis

Bacteria: Streptococci and Staphylococci

Johne’s Disease

Bacillus paratuberculosis

Brucellosis

Bacteria

(Bang’s Disease)

Brucella

Salmonellosis

Salmonella dublin and S. Typhimurium

Foot rot

Bacteria: Fausiformis nodosus

Haemorrhagic Disease

Bacteria

(Bovine pasteurellosis;

Pasteurella

Shipping fever; shipping pneumonia)

Multocida

Fowl typhoid

Salmonella gallinarum

Ringworm

Mould (fungus) Microsporon, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton

Trichomoniasis

Protozoan; Trihomonas foetus (Transmitted through coitus)

Coccidiosis

Protozoan; Eimeria bovis

Trypanosomiassis

Protozoan; Trypanosoma congolense

Babesiosis

Protozoan; Babesia bovis (Transmitted by tick)

“Snoring disease”

Trematode (fluke) Schistosoma nasale

Liver rot

Liver fluke Fasciola hepatica

Measly beef

Tapeworm: Taenia Saginata

HUMAN DISEASES

Diseases caused by Protozoa

Disease

Affected Organ

Parasites

Carrier

Symptoms

Malaria

RBC and Liver

Plasmodium

Female Anophelies

Fever with shivering

Pyorrhoea

Gums

Entamoeba gingivelis

-

Bleeding from gums

Sleeping sickness

Brain

Trypanosoma

Tse-Tse flies

Fever with severe sleep

Diarrhoea

Intestine

Entamoeba Histolytica

House flies

Mucous and Diarrohea with blood

Kala-ajar

Bone marrow

Leismania donovani

Sand flies

High fever

Filaria

-

Wuchereia baoncrofti

Culex moszuitoes

Swelling in legs, testes and other parts of body

Diseases caused by Bacteria

Diseases

Affected Organ

Nature of Bacteria

Symptoms

Tetanus

Nervous System

Clostridium tetani

High fever, spasm in body, Closing of jaws etc.

Cholera

Intestine

Vibrio cholera

Continuous stool and vomiting

Typhoid

Intestine

Salmonella typhosa

High fever, headache

Tuberculosis

Lungs

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Repeating Coughing

Diphtheria

Respiratory tube

Corynebacterium diphtheria

Difficulty in respiration and suffocation

Plague

Lungs, area between the two legs

Pasteurella pesties

Very high fever, muscular eruptions on the body

Whooping cough

Respiratory system

Hemophilis pertusis

Continuous coughing

Pneumonia

Lungs

Diplococcus pneumoniae

High fever, swelling in lungs

Leprosy Skin

Nervous System leprae

Mycobacterium affected

Spots on body, nerves

Gonorrhea

Urinary path

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Swelling in urinary path.

Syphilis

Urinary path

Treponema pallidum

Wounds in urinogenial tract

Diseases caused by Viruses

Diseases

Affected Organ

Nature of Virus

Symptoms

AIDS

Defensive system (WBC)

HIV

Immune system of body became weak.

Dengue fever

Whole body particularly head, eyes and joints.

Pain in eyes, muscles, head and joints.

Polio

Throat, backbone nerve

Polio virus

Fever, body pain, back bone and intestine cells are destroyed.

Influenza (flu)

Whole body

Mixo virus

Suffocation, sneezing, restlessness.

Chicken pox

Whole body

Variola virus

High fever, eruption on body.

Small pox

Whole body

Varicella virus

Light fever, eruption of bile on body.

Goitre

Parathyroid gland

-

Difficulty in opening the mouth with fever.

Measles

Whole body

Morbeli virus

Reddish eruption on body.

Trachoma

Eyes

-

Reddish eyes, pain in eyes.

Hepatitis or Jaundice

Liver

-

Yellow urine, Eyes and skin become yellow.

Rabies

Nervous system

Rabies virus

The patient becomes mad with severe headache and high fever.

Meningitis

Brain

-

High fever.

Herpes

Skin

Herpes

Swelling in skin

Diseases caused by Fungus

Diseases

Name of Fungi

Symptoms

Asthama

Aspergillus fumigatus

Obstructs the function of lungs.

Athlete’s foot

Tenia pedes

Cracking of feet.

Scabies

Acarus scabies

White spot found on the skin.

Baldness

Taenia capities

Hair of the head falls.

Ringworm

Trycophyton lerucosum

Round red spot on the skin.

Deficiency Diseases

Deficiency

Disease

Causes/Symptoms

A. Protein

Kwashiorkor

Children become irritable, cease to grow, lose weight, skin pigmented, potbelly due to retention of water by the cells (oedema), mental retardation.

Protein Shortage

Marasmus

Muscle degeneration, thinning of limbs and abdominal wall, ribs prominent, skin pigmentation and oedema absent.

B. Minerals

Iron

Iron deficiency Anaemia

Deficiency of haemoglobin in RBCs, persons look pale, lose appetite and fatigue easily.

Potassium (K)

Hypokalemia

Loss of K in severe vomiting and acute diarrhoea. Rise in heart-beat rate, kidney damage, weakness and paralysis of muscles.

Sodium (Na)

Hyponatremia

Loss of Na, dehydration, low blood pressure, loss of body weight.

Iodine (I)

Simple Goitre

Enlargement of thyroid due to low iodine content in drinking water.

Calcium (Ca)

Rickets and Osteomalacia

Refer vitamin D deficiency.

C. Vitamins

Vitamin A

(i) Xerophthalmia or ‘dry eye’

(ii) Dermatosis

(iii) Night blindness

Lachrimal glands stop producing tears leading to blindness.

Dry and scaly skin

Inability to see in the dark or in dim light.

Vitamin B-Complex

B1 (thiamine)

Beri-beri

Extreme weakness, swelling and pain in the legs, loss of appetite, headache, enlarged heart and shortness of breath.

B2 (riboflavin)

Ariboflavinosis

Blurred vision, burning and soreness of eye and tongue, cracking of skin at angle of mouth.

B12 (cobalamin)

Pernicious or megaloblastic anaemia

Reduction in haemoglobin content due to disturbance of RBC formation in bone marrow.

Niacin

Pellagra

Tip and lateral margins of tongue, mouth and gums become red, swollen and develop ulcers. Skin red and itchy on hands, feet, elbows, wrists and knees.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Scurvy

Pain in joints, loss of weight, anaemia, gums become spongy, swollen and bleed easily, teeth losses and fragile.

Vitamin D

Rickets

Osteomalacia

Occurs in children. Softness and deformities of bones bow legs and pigeon chests due to loss of bone Ca.

Occurs in adults, softness and pain in bones which fracture easily, bending of vertebral column.

National Aids Control Programme (NACP)

HIV/AIDS Situation in India: As per revised estimates carried out during 2006 the number of persons living with HIV in the country is 2 to 3.1 million with an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 0.36%. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu contribute 63% of HIV infected persons in the country. In order to control the spread of HIV/AIDS, government of India is implementing the NACP as a 100% centrally sponsored scheme. Launched in July 2007, NACP phase-III (2007-2012) has the goal to halt and the epidemic in the country over the next 5 years by integrating programmes, prevention, care, support and treatment.

Targeted Interventions for Population at High Risk: The Targeted Intervention (TI) projects aim to interrupt HIV transmission among highly vulnerable populations. As on date, 871 Targeted Interventions are operational in various states and UTs in the country. Saturation of all high risk groups through 2100 TIs and development of 50% of TIs into CBOs is the target under NACP-III. Recently, Oral Substitution Therapy  (OST) has been introduced in the National Programme as a part of the Harm Reduction Strategy to bring down HIV infection among injectible drug users.

Blood Safety: About 1.1% of the transmission is through contaminated blood. The goal is to reduce the transmission through blood to less than 1%. Over 1088 blood banks have been modernized, over 59% of the total blood units collected through Voluntary Blood Donation and a system of mandatory screening of blood for HIV, Hepatitis B&C, malaria and syphilis is enforced. This has enabled reducing transmission of HIV infection through contaminated blood from about 6.07% (1999), 4.61% (2003), 2.07% (2005), 1.96% (2006) to 1.1% (2007). Under the existing regulatory framework, all the blood units are mandatorily tested against five Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs), i.e., HIV, Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C, Syphilis and Malaria. Only the blood units free from these TTIs are used for transfusion purposes.

Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres (ICTC): The ICTCs have been established at medical colleges, district hospitals, sub district level hospitals and few community health centres and it is proposed to further extend the services to all the CHCs and 24 hours PHCs in the country.

Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission: All the ICTCs centres are now providing counselling and testing services to pregnant women. Hospitals with large number of ANCs & institutional deliveries provide an ICTC in the Obstretics & Gynaecology department.

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI): During 2006, NACO and RCH division jointly issued a manual on management of STIs, so as to strengthen the services in the government health facilities Joint training material has also been developed. A package for involvement of private physicians in the Category A&B districts has been developed. Medicines are under procurement in coloured cartons for each STI syndrome to facilitate the management of STI in the peripheral health facilities.

Care and Support: Government of India announced a policy cum programme commitment for providing free ART with effect from 1st April, 2004. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is a combination of at least 3 ARV drugs that is given to HIV infected individuals once they reach a stage of advanced immuno-suppression. Second line ARV drugs are being provided free of cost at Mumbai and Chennai from 2008. A total of 159 community care centres have also been established in high prevalence states to enable People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) to get used to ART, to provide Counselling and follow-up advice on drug adherence, management of opportunistic Infections and Nutrition Counselling, to provide pre-ART care for those PLHA who are not yet on ART through outreach and home-based services. To reduce inconvenience and indirect expenditures of patients, 46 drug dispensing centres have been established linked to the ART centre. These link centres will require the patients to go to the ART centres only 2 times instead of 12 as at present. Second line treatment has been introduced on a pilot basis in 2 centres and 42 persons are being treated.

National Paediatric AIDS Initiative: In order to provide comprehensive Care and Support (including ART) to children infected and affected by HIV, NACO has launched National Paediatric AIDS Initiative on 30th November, 2006. For this initiative NACO, along-with the Indian Academy of Paediatrics (IAP), UNICEF, WHO and Clinton Foundation, has developed guidelines for paediatric ART. ARV drugs in paediatric formulations are available at all ART centres. Number of children receiving ART increased from 1800 before October 2006 to 9925 in May 2008. 32,500 are reported and being monitored. Other activities under this initiative include establishment of seven Regional Paediatric Centres, free CD4 monitoring, free DNA PCR test for children up to 18 months, liquid formulations for babies weighing less than 5 kg, diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic infections and micro nutrient supplementation. The initiative also includes training of paediatricians and counsellors, establishing laboratories for diagnosis, introduction of Dried Blood Support system to transport dried blood samples. Care and Support for CLHA (Children Living with HIV/AIDS) orphans and vulnerable children forms an integral part of NACP III.

Condom Promotion: Condom programme is central to HIV/AIDS prevention at the intervention level. The use of condoms is promoted as a protection against STIs and HIV/AIDs in addition to Family Planning. Condom use is promoted and condoms provided at all ICTCS and ART centres and also the STI clinics. In 2006, 1250 million condoms were supplied free, 604 million were distributed through social marketing while 389 million through commercial marketing. 11025 Condom Vending Machines have been installed and another 11000 are in the process of being installed. 3.5 billion condoms are targeted to be distributed through 3 million outlets during NACP – III.

Information, Education and Communication activities (IEC): NACO is working on a communication strategy which is a shift from awareness generation to bringing about behaviour change. NACO has focused on reduction of stigma and discrimination, promotion of services viz., counselling & testing, ART, routinisation of condom use and blood safety. Special emphasis has been given to youth and women who are more vulnerable to HIV infection. A cadre of village level Link workers are going to be set up in A & B category districts for focused interventions of BCC.  Intensive IEC among general populations has resulted in increasing awareness of HIV/AIDS among rural populations to about 75% (BSS 2006). Under the adolescent education program, over 1,14,345 high schools have been covered with HIV/AIDS and life skill education programs. The Red Ribbon Express launched on 1.12.2007 has traversed over 180 stations and 27,000 kms. It has drawn huge crowds at all the stations.

Mainstreaming: In order to reiterate the Government’s multi-sectoral response to prevent the spread of HIV and to facilitate a strong multi-sectoral response to combat it effectively, a National Council on AIDS (NCA) has been constituted, under the chairmanship of Hon’ble Prime Minister with representation of 33 ministries and departments. Private sector, civil society organization, PLHA networks and government departments would all play crucial role in prevention, care, support, treatment and service delivery.

National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme: Iodine is an essential micronutrient with an average daily at 100-150 micrograms for normal human growth and development. Deficiency of Iodine can cause physical and mental retardation, cretinism, abortions, stillbirth, deaf mutism, squint and various types of goiter. The Government is implementing the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP) formerly known as National Goitre Control Programme (NGCP) since 1962 a 100% centrally assisted programme with a focus on the provision of iodised salt, IDD survey / resurvey, laboratory monitoring of Iodated salt and Iodine excretion, health education and publicity. Government of India has banned the sale of non-iodated salt in the entire country for direct human consumption under Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 with effect from 17th May, 2006.

National Mental Health Programme (NMHP): Severe mental disorders that include scnizophrenia, bipolar, organic psychosis and major depression affect nearly 20 per 1000 population.

National Mental Health Programme was started in 1982 with the following three objectives:

  • To ensure availability and accessibility of minimum mental health care for all in the near foreseeable future, particularly to the most vulnerable sections of the population.
  • To encourage mental health knowledge and skills in general health care and social development.
  • To promote community participation in mental health service development and to stimulate self-help in the community.

A model delivery of community based mental health care at the level of district was evolved and field tested in Bellary district of Karnataka by NIMHANS between 1986-1995. This model was adapted as the District Mental Health Programme (DMHP) and it was implemented in the IXth plan beginning in the year 1996. During the 10th Five Year Plan, NMHP was re-strategised and it became from single pronged to multi-pronged programme. Grants have also been released for upgradation of Psychiatric wings of 75 Government Medical Colleges / General Hospitals and modernization of 26 Mental Hospitals.

During the 11th Five Year Plan an allocation of Rs. 1000 crore has been made for the National Mental Health Programme. During the 11th Five Year Plan, it has been proposed to decentralize the Programme and synchronize with National Rural Health Mission for optimizing the results.

Yaws Eradication Programme (YEP): Yaws Eradication Programme (YEP) was launched as a centrally sponsored scheme in 1996-97 in Koraput district of Odisha, which was subsequently extended to Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Assam and Gujarat during 9th Plan period. National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) (formerly: National Institute of Communicable Diseases) has been identified as the nodal agency for the planning, monitoring and evaluation of the programme. The  Programme is implemented by the endemic State Health Directorates through the existing health care system. As a result of YEP, the number of reported cases has come down from 3,571 in 1996 to 46 in 2003. No Yaws case reported from 2004 till date. Yaws elimination was declared on 19th September, 2006.

NATIONAL CANCER CONTROL PROGRAMME

Forty per cent of the cancers in the country are due to tobacco. Hence Tobacco-related cancers are very common among males, namely, cancer of the lungs and oral cavity. Among women, cancer of uterine cervix and breast are common. The National Cancer Control Programme was launched in 1975-76. In order to cater to the changing needs of the disease, the programme has undergone three revisions with the third revision completed in December 2004. C-DAC, Trivandrum has been entrusted with the responsibility of preparing the DPR for Operationalisation of Onconet India. India has become a member of the International Agency for Research in Cancer that shall provide a fillipto cancer research in the country.

National Cancer Awareness Day: November 7th, the birth anniversary of Madame Curie is observed as the National Cancer Awareness Day. Number of banners are displayed for creating awareness among the general masses about cancer on the day.

HEALTH MINISTER’S CANCER PATIENT FUND UNDER “RAN”

The “Health Minister’s Cancer Patient Fund” (HMCPF) within the Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi (RAN) Scheme has also been set up in 2009. In order to utilize the HMCPF, it is proposed to establish the revolving fund like RAN in the Various Regional Cancer Centre(s) (RCCs) which are getting fund for equipments from Cancer Programme of Government of India. The Financial Assistance to the Cancer Patients up to Rs. 1,00,000/-.

PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION PROGRAMME

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is responsible for ensuring safe food to the consumers. Keeping this in view, a legislation called “Prevention of Good Adulteration Act, 1954” was enacted. The objective envisaged in this legislation was to ensure pure and wholesome food to the consumers and also to prevent fraud or deception. The Act has been amended thrice in 1964, 1976 and in 1986 with the objective of plugging the loopholes and making the punishments more stringent and empowering Consumers and Voluntary Organizations to play a more effective role in its implementation.

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is designated as the National Codex Contact Point in India to examine and formulate India’s views on the agenda for the various meeting of Codex Alimentarius Commission, a joint venture of FAO/WHO dealing with International Food Standards and its subsidiary committees. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare constituted a National Codex Committee (NCC) and an Assistant Director General (PFA) has been working as Liaison Officer for NCC. The NCC has further constituted 24 Shadow Committees corresponding to various Codex commodities committees for preparation and finalization of India’s stand.

India has been regularly attending the various sessions of the Codex Alimentarius Commission and various Codex Commodity Committees to put forward her views and defend these views.

Harmonisation of PFA with Codex: After signing the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) and Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT) agreements by India and removal of quantitative restrictions on import of food products into India, the exercise of harmonization of standards for food products, use of food additives, microbiological requirements, harmonization of regulations, in line with international standards prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission and International Standards Organization (ISO) had been initiated.

MEDICAL COUNCIL OF INDIA

The Medical Council of India (MCI) was established as a statutory body under the provisions of the Indian Medical Council Act 1933 which was later repealed by the Indian Medical Council Act 1956 with minor amendments in 1958. A major amendment the I.M.C. Act 1956 was made in 1993 making it mandatory for obtaining the approval of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare for opening new medical colleges / increasing seats, starting new courses in order to regulate the standard of medical education in the country. The I.M.C. act 1956 was further amended in 2001 to enable the Medical Council of India to conduct Screening Tests for Indian nationals holding foreign medical qualifications to test their skill before granting them registration to practice medicine in India.

CENTRAL HEALTH EDUCATION BUREAU

Central Health Education Bureau (CHEB) is an apex institution which had a humble beginning on 6th of December in 1956 under Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS), Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India, for the health education and health promotion in the country. The Bureau, located in New Delhi, is headed by a Director, an SAG level officer who is assisted by a team of officers in different disciplines. Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi was launched by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare in 1977. The scheme provides for financial assistance to patients, living below poverty line who is suffering from major life threatening diseases, to receive medical treatment at any of the super specialty hospitals / institutes or other Government hospitals. The financial assistance to such patients is released in the form of “one time grant” to the Medical Superintendent of the hospital in which the treatment is being received. The National Academy of Medical Sciences (NAMS), New Delhi was established in 1961 as a Non-Official body of Bio-Medical scientists. The fellowship of the Academy became a coveted hallmark of distinction accorded in resignation for outstanding achievements in sciences, education, services, etc. The Academy awards Fellowships to the most distinguished men of science. The Pharmacy Council of India is a statutory body constituted and practice of profession in the country for registration as a pharmacist.

The integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) was launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in November 2004. It is intended to detect early warning signals of impending outbreaks and help to initiate an effective response in a timely manner. Total Budget for the project from 2004-09 was given as Rs. 399.70 crores.

  • National Informatics Centre (NIC) has established broadband connectivity at 760 out of 796 sites. The objective of Data Centre is online entry of data to central servers for speedy data transmission.
  • The IDSP portal is a one stop portal which has facilities for data entry, view reports, outbreak reporting data,       analysis, training modules and resources related to disease surveillance. A total of 21 States have started   reporting in the portal.
  • Infectious Disease Hospital Surveillance Network: Seven Infectious Disease Hospitals, one each in four metros and Bangalore, Ahmedabad and Hyderabad have been given funds for strengthening reporting from ID Hospitals. EDUSAT network has been installed and recruitment is completed except in Bangalore, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata have started reporting.

INTEGRATED DISEASE SURVEILLANCE PROJECT - SEPTEMBER 2009

IDSP is World Bank assisted in November 2004 with the objective to detect and respond to early warning signals of disease outbreaks. IDSP receives weekly disease surveillance data from 306 out of 606 districts (51%) districts of phase I, II and III states. A total of 43 outbreaks were detected during this month, including Acute Diarrhoeal diseases (41%), Malaria (11%) and Chikungunya, Dengu, Food poisoning (9%).

Dental Council of India is a statutory body established under the Dentists Act, 1948. It periodically carries out inspections of dental institutions to ascertain the adequacy of teaching facilities.

Rogi Kalyan Samitis: More than 13,000 Rogi Kalyan Samitis / Hospital Development Committees have been set up in the country. Nearly all District/ Sub District Hospitals and CHCs have opened their own Bank Accounts. PHCs are also in the process of doing so. Rs. 5 Lakhs has been provided for District Hospital RKSs and Rupee One Lakh for Sub District / CHC / PHC Hospitals / Centres. They are expected to make the functioning of the Hospitals more accountable, transparent and need based.

Janani Suraksha Yojana: JSY is a safe motherhood intervention under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) being implemented with the objective of reducing material and neo-natal mortality by promoting institutional delivery among the poor pregnant women. JSY is a 100% centrally sponsored scheme and it integrates cash assistance with delivery and post-delivery care.

Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS): Implementation of Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) for Primary Healthcare Facilities, will ensure quality services by providing infrastructure, equipments and specialist man-power.

PROHIBITION OF PRE-CONCEPTION AND PRE-NATAL SEX DETERMINATION

In order to check female foeticide, the Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994 was enacted and brought into operation from 1st January, 1996. The Act prohibits determination and disclosure of the sex of foetus. It also prohibits any advertisements relating to pre-natal determination of sex. Punishments are prescribed for contravention of any of its provisions, like imprisonment up to 5 years and fine up to Rs. 1,00,000/- in addition to cancellation of the registration / licence in the case of medical professionals / diagnostic centres, clinics, etc.

Safe Abortion Services /Medical termination of Pregnancy (MTP): Provision of Safe Abortion Services in accordance with the MTP Act 1971 is an important component of the ongoing RCH Programme Phase II and it is one of the means of reducing maternal mortality.

INDIAN NURSING COUNCIL

The Indian Nursing Council is a statutory body constituted under the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947 and 5,26,242 ANMs have been registered with various State Nursing Council upto 31st December, 2006.

PULSE POLIO IMMUNIZATION

In accordance with the World Health Assembly resolution of 1988, in addition to administration of routine OPV through the Universal Immunization Programme, the Pulse Polio Immunization (PPI) Programme was launched in 1995-96 to cover all children below the age of 3 years. In order to accelerate the pace of polio eradication, the target age group was increased from 1996-97 to all children under the age of 5 years. Till 1998-99, the PPI programme consisted of vaccination of children at fixed booths on the National Immunization Days (NIDs) held twice, separated by six weeks, during the winter season.

RASHTRIYA SWASTHYA BIMA YOJANA

Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), a scheme of Ministry of Labour was launched on October 1, 2007 and rolled out from 1st April, 2008 in a phased manner. The scheme is implemented in most of the states, initially on pilot basis. However, the Government has decided to take up all the districts in 2009-10 itself.

NATIONAL COMMISSION ON POPULATIONS (NCP)

The National Commission on population was constituted in May 2000 to review, monitor and give direction for the implementation of the National Population Policy (NPP), with a view to meeting the goals set out in the policy, to promote intersectoral coordination, involve the civil society in planning and implementation etc.

  • With the coming into effect of the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (FSSA) enacted by Parliament in August 2006, the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 stands repealed from the date on which Food Safety and Standards Act comes into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Gazette.
  • Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi was set up in 1997 to provides for financial assistance to patients, living below poverty line, who is suffering from major life threatening diseases, to receive medical treatment in Government Hospitals.
  • The National Academy of Medical Sciences (NAMS), New Delhi was established in 1961 as a Non-Official body of Bio-Medical scientists with the object of promotion and encouragement of merit in medical sciences.
  • The Reproductive and Child Health programme (RCH) II under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)       comprehensively integrates interventions that improve child health and address factors contributing to infant and under-five mortality.
  • In 1952, India launched the world’s first national programme emphasizing family planning to the extent necessary for reducing birth rates “to stabilize the population at a level consistent with the requirement of   national economy.”
  • Immunization programme is one of the key interventions for protection of children from life threatening conditions, which are preventable. Immunization Programme in India was introduced in 1978 as Expanded Programme of Immunization.
  • In the pursuance of the World Health Assembly resolution of 1988, in addition to administration of routine OPV       through the Universal Immunization Programme, the Pulse Polio Immunization (PPI) Programme was launched in 1995-96 to cover all children below the age of 3 years.

Last Updated on Thursday, 24 May 2012 04:48
 

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