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INDIA : ENVIRONMENT
Thursday, 24 May 2012 03:02

 

INDIA : ENVIRONMENT


INSTITUTION

HEAD OFFICE

Botanical Survey of India

Kolkata,

13 Feb., 1890

Zoological Survey of India

Kolkata, 1916

Forest Survey of India

Dehradun

1 June, 1981

Prepares State of Forest Report including National Vegetation Map once in 2 years.

National Biodiversity Authority

Chennai,

1 Oct, 2003

It was set up under the Biological Diversity Act, 2002.

National Institute of Animal Welfare (NIAW)

Ballabhgarh, Faridabad

Animal Welfare Board of India

Chennai

It is a statutory body Under Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960.

Indian Board of Wildlife

--

Headed by PM, it is the apex advisory body overseeing and guiding the implementation of various schemes for wildlife conservation.

Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)

Delhi Sept., 1974

Autonomous body set up under the Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, 1974.

National Afforestation and Eco Development Board (NAEDB)

August, 1992

G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development (GBPIHED)

Almora, 1988

Indian Council of Forest Research and Education (ICFRE)

Dehradun

Forest Research Institute

Dehradun

Arid Forest Research Institute

Jodhpur

Rain Forest Research Institute

Jorhat

Tropical Forestry Research Institute

Jabalpur

Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding

Coimbatore

Himalayan Forest Research Institute

Shimla

Centre for Social Forestry  and Eco-rehabilitation

Allahabad

Institute of Forestry Research and Human Resources Development

Chhindwara

Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute

Bangalore

Indian Institute of Forest Management

Bhopal

Wildlife Institute of India

Dehradun

Salim Ali Centre for Criminology and National History (SACONH)

Coimbatore

Centre for Environmental Education

Ahmedabad

CPR Environmental Education Centre

Chennai

Centre for Ecological Sciences

Bangalore

Centre for Mining Environment

Ahmedabad

Centre for Environmental Management of degraded ecosystems

Delhi

Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute

Thiruvananthapurm

National Museum of Natural History (NMNH)

New Delhi, 1978

Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy

Dehradun

Tropical Forest Research Institute

Jabalpur

KEY ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION & OTHER PROVISIONS IN INDIA

Policies

1992

Policy Statement on Abatement of Pollution

1992

National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development

1998

National Forest Policy

2002

Wildlife Conservation Strategy

2006

National Environment Policy

Environmental Legislation

1927

The Indian Forest Act

1972

The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act (amended 1993)

1973

The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act (amended 1988).

1977

The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act (amended 1992).

1980

The Forest (Conservation) Act (amended 1988).

1981

The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act (amended 1987).

1986

The Environment (Protection) Act (amended 1992).

1988

The Motor Vehicles Act

1991

The Public Liability Insurance Act (amended 1992)

1995

National Environment Tribunal Act

1996

National Environment Appellate Authority Act

2002

The Wild Life (Protection) Amended Act

2002

The Biological Diversity Act

2003

The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess (Amendment) Act.

International Environmental Agreements to which India is a Signatory

1985

The Vienna Convention / Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer.

1972

The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and the Agenda 21.

1975

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of flora and fauna (CITES).

1991

The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (the Ramsar Convention)

1992

The Framework Convention on Climate Change.

1992

The Convention for Conservation of Biological Resources.

The main emphasis of ministry of environment and forests under the government structure and implementation of policies and programmers related to conservation of country’s natural resources its biodiversity, forests and wild life, ensuring the welfare of animals and control and battements of pollution.  The ministry also serves as nodal agency in country for United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme [SACEP], International Center for Integrated  Mountain Development [ITIMOD]  and for the follow up of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED].

A Natural Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development, 1992, National  Forest Policy , 1988, a Policy Statement on Abatement of Pollution ,1992 and a National Environment Policy, 2005 have also been evolved.

Botanical Survey of India (BSI): BSI was established on 13th Feb., 1890 with the basic objective to explore the plant resources of country and to identify the plant species with economic virtues.

BSI Headquarters: Kolkata and its 10 circle officer across the country. With the passing years, BSI, functions  has been expended to include various new areas such as invert rising endemic rare and threatened plant species, conservation strategies, studies on fragile eco system and protected areas like national park, biosphere reserves etc.

Zoological Survey of India (ZSI): was established in 1916 with headquarter at Kolkata with 16 regional stations across the country. ZSI works under ministry has been under taping survey, exploration and research ZSI in recent years has reoriented its plan of work by grouping in survey and studies under six major programmer Viz.

1. fauna of states

2. fauna and conservation areas,

3. fauna of important ecosystem,

4. status survey endangered species and ecological studies / environment impact assignment survey and identification of wildlife seized materials related to wild life protection act 1972 Besides, the ongoing fauna of India programme was also continued.

One environment impact assignment survey at regnant of Bhilai Steel Plant in Chhattisgarh was carried out.

The book on faunal diversity of tiger of India reserves was released by the honourable Prime Minister of India during meeting of National Board for Wildlife.

Forest Survey of India: Dehradun forests are renewable resources contribute substantially to economic development. FSI a premier national institute for forest resources assignment in for collection of data on scientific line through nationwide comprehensive forest resources survey at regular intervals. FSI head quarter – Dehradun with four regional offices at Shimla, Kolkata, Nagpur, Bangalore, when work is close cooredaction to carry out the various activities of FSI. Other function of FSI includes date processing and conducting training of forests and trees outside forest and reporting. Head Quarters in other activities as and when aligned.

The forest cover maps on different scales are kept in public domain and sold to start forest departments and other user agencies on normal price. Since 2001 the latest tree cover maps are available as hard copy and also in ditigal form.

According to the state of forests report 2005: Total forest cover of country as per 2005 assignment in 677.008 km2 and line constitutes 20.60% of total geographical area of country of this 5.4, 569 km2 (1.66%) in very dense, 332.647 km2 (10.12%) in moderately dense forest while 289.87 km2. (8.82%) in open forest cover. The scrub accounts for 38,475 km2 (1.17%).

The state / UT wise forest cover it country show that map with 76.0/3 km2 has largest area under forest cover, followed by Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh.

According to proportion of geographic under forest cover, Mizoram has maximum percentage of 88.66% followed by Nagaland 82.75%, Arunachal Pradesh 80.93% and Andaman Nicobar (80.36%).

WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES AND NATIONAL PARKS IN INDIA

NAME

LOCATION

IMPORTANT SPECIES

Bandipur National Park

Mysore, Karnataka

Elephant, Tiger, Bear, Sambhar, Panther

Balpakram Sanctuary

Garo Hills, Meghalaya

Tiger, Elephant, Bison

Chandraprabha Sanctuary

Varanasi, U.P.

Asiatic Lion, Tiger, Panther, Indian Gazelle, Sloth Bear

Corbett National Park

Nainital, Uttaranchal

Elephant, Tiger, Sloth Bear, Nilgai, Panther, Sambhar

Dachigam Sanctuary

Jammu & Kashmir

Kashmir stag (Hangul)

Dudhwa National Park

Lakhimpur Kheri, U.P.

Tiger, Panther, Sambhar, Nilgai

Ghana Bird Sanctuary

Bharatpur, Rajasthan

Siberian Crane, Spoonbill, Heron teal, Stork

Gir National Park

Junagarh, Gujarat

Asiatic Lion, Panther, Sambhar, Nilgai, Crocodile, Rhinoceros

Hazaribagh National Park

Hazaribagh, Jharkhand

Tiger, Leopard, Sambhar, Chital

Jaldapar Sanctuary

West Bengal

Tiger, Leopard, Sambhar, Chital

Kanha National Park

Mandla and Balaghat, M.P.

Tiger, Panther, Antelope, Barking Deer, Nilgai

Kaziranga National Park

Jorhat, Assam

Great Indian one Horned Rhinoceros, Wild Buffalo, Sambhar, Tiger

Manas

Barpeta, Assam

Tiger, Elephant, Panther, Wild Buffalo, One horned Rhinoceros.

Mudumalai Sanctuary

Nilgiri Hills, TN

Elephant, Deer, Pig

Namdapha National Park

Tirap Distt. A.P.

Tiger and Elephant

Palamau

Daltonganj, Jharkhand

Tiger, Elephant, Panther, Leopard

Parkal

Warangal, A.P.

Tiger, Panther, Chital, Nilgai

Periyar

Idukki, Kerala

Elephant, Tiger, Panther, Wild Boar, Gaur, Sambhar

Ranganthitoo Bird Sanctuary

Karnataka

Birds

Shivpuri National Park

Shivpuri, M.P.

Tiger, Birds

Sunderbans

West Bengal

Tiger, Wild boar, Crocodile, Deer, Birds

Vedanathangal Bird Sanctuary

Tamil Nadu

Birds

Wild Ass Sanctuary

Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat

Wild Ass, Wolf, Nilgai, Chinkara

CONSERVATION-MANGROVES OF CORAL REEFS

The coastal regulation zone notification (1991) under the environmental protection Act (1986) recognizes mangrove and coral reefs areas as ecological sensitive and categorizes them as CRZ-I (i) which implies that these areas are afforded protection of highest order under the promotional measure, the government has identified 28 mangrove areas, four coral reefs areas on a country-wide basin for intensive conservation and management.

The National Policy 2006 recognizes that mangroves and coral reefs are important costal environment resources, which provide habitats for marine species I protection from extreme weather events; and a resource base for sustainable tourism. The policy also recognize that mangrove, as indeed the other castle resources like coral reefs and coastal forests, face threats from various quarters.

Mangroves in India account for about 5% of world’s mangrove vegetation and are spread over an area 4500 km2 along coastal states | UTs of country.

West Bengal’s sunderbase account for a little less than half of total area under mangroves in India.

Forest survey of India is assessing the vegetation cover of country including mangroves using remote sensing since 1987.

 

TOP – 3 Mangrove Area in Country

West Bengal

Gujarat

Andaman & Nicobar

The ministry has established a national mangrove genetic resources centre in Odisha.

 

Coral Reefs

The 4 major coral reefs areas identified for intensive conservation and management

Gulf of Mannar

Gulf of Kutchh

Lakshadweep

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

In India coral reefs area estimated = 2375 km2 Recognizing that 2008 is the international year of coral reefs, ministry has sponsored a workshop entitled status of coral reefs in India jointly organized by Lakshadweep and National Institute of Oceanography [Goa] at Kadamat Islands, Lakshadweep.

BIOSPHERE RESERVES (BR)

Biosphere Reserves are areas of territorial and coastal ecosystem wheel are internationally recognized with in framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme these reserves are required to meet a minimal set of criteria and adhere to a minimal set of conditions before being admitted to world network of biosphere reserves designated by UNESCO. India has been divided in to 10 biographic zones and these zones together consists of twenty-five bio-graphic provinces, the aim into designate one representative site as biosphere reserve in each bio-geographic province for long  term conservation.

The ministry has provided financial assistance to representative state governments for conservation and management of 16 biosphere reserves designated so far. In addition watched biosphere reserve in Gujarat has been designated as 15th biosphere reserve in the country on 29th January, 2008.Out of 15 reserves 14 reserves namely Sunderban (West Bengal), Gulf of Mannar (TN), Nilgiri (TN, Kerala, Karnataka) & Nanda Devi (Uttaranchal) have been included in world network of biosphere reserves.

 

Major role of Biosphere Reserves:

Conservation role

Logistic role

Development role

 

Biosphere reserve zoning – has been chiefly classified into three:

Strictly prohibited core area

Strictly delineated buffer zone

Interlineated outer buffer zone or transition area

BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), one of key agreement adopted during the earth summit held in Riode Janeiro in 1992 in the first comprehensive global agreement which addresses all aspects related with biodiversity.

CBD has near universal membership with 190 countries.

India in party to CBD

Eight meeting of the Conference Of Parties (COP) to CBD eight was at critical Braz.

National Biodiversity  Authority (NBA), CHENNAI.

India hosted two meetings for the CBD in 2009 i.e., an expert meeting on Traditional Knowledge in Hyderabad from 16 – 19 June, 2009 and Asia Pacific regional workshop on protected Areas in Dehradun on 12 – 15 October, 2009. In pursuance to the CBD, India has enacted the Biological Diversity Act in 2002. The Biological rules were notified in 2004.

 

BOTANIC GARDEN OF THE INDIAN REPUBLIC, NOIDA

It was set up to facilitate existing conservation propagation of race for threatened indigenous plants in country.

 

UNDP-GOICCF II – projection promoting conservation of medicinal plants and Karol edge for enhancing health for livelihood security.

 

PROJECT TIGER

Project Tiger – (National Tiger Conservation Authority): It is centrally sponsored scheme launched in April, 1973.

Project Elephant – Launched in Feb., 1992, assistance was provided to Haryana for creation of first elephant rehabilitation center in country.

3 more elephant research are to be established two in Chhattisgarh and 1 in Arunachal Pradesh.

 

POLLUCATION

Under national air quality programme, four air pollucations.

1. Sulphur dioxide

2. Oxides of nitrogen as NO2

3. Suspended particle matter (spm) and reparable suspended particulate matter (RSPM OR PM 10) have been identified for regular monitoring at all location.

4. National river conservation directorate – functioning under ministry of environment.

5. National museum of natural history – is subordinate organization of ministry of environment.

6. Indira Priyadarshini Vriksha Mitra awards. It is proposed to restructure awards to significantly improve the profile of awardees so that they become role models, which is required in view of longer management cycle of tree plantation activity.

7. Medini Puraskar Yovana – Related with environment.

 

Ozone layer protection: Government of India has been entrusted in work related to ozone layer protection and implementation of mentored protocol to ministry.

The Animal Welfare Division is entrusted with the implementation of the provisions of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. Plan Schemes are in operation for implementation of the statutory obligations under this Act.

The Concern for environmental quality has become the utmost issue in the present scenario of increasing urbanization, industrial and vehicular pollution as well as pollution of water courses due to discharge of affluent without conforming to the environmental norms.

The Ministry under the Environment Protection Act (1986), has notified the ‘Rules for the Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous Micro Organisms / Genetically engineered Organisms or Cells 1989” (known as Rules, 1989) to ensure that research and development and testing of LMOs prior to environmental release are conducted in a safe and scientific manner.

The mandate of the Forest Conservation Division is to implement the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, which was enacted on 25 October 1980.

This Act deals with grant of forestry clearances for diversion of forest lands for non-forestry purposes in respect of development projects like power, roads, railways, irrigation, mining, schools, defence, drinking water, resettlement, rehabilitation of people, etc.

Integrated Forest Protection Scheme (IFPS) was being implemented during the 10th Five Year Plan and is being continued during 11th Plan. The Planning Commission has suggested to rename the Scheme as “Intensification of Forest Management” during 11th Five Year Plan.

Non-Legally Binding International Instrument for sustainable development of all types of forests has been agreed to as Global Forest Policy by all member countries of the United Nations and adopted by General Assembly.

The Indian Constitution entails the subject of forest and wildlife in the Concurrent list. The Federal Ministry acts as a guiding torch dealing with policies and planning on wildlife conservation while the State Forest Departments have been vested with the responsibility of implementation of national policies and plans.

Zoos in India are regulates as per the provisions of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 and are the guided by the National  Zoo Policy 1998.

The Central Zoo Authority (CZA), established by the Government of India in year 1992 through an amendment in the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 overseas the functioning of Zoos and enforces minimum standards and norms for upkeep and health care of animals.

The major functions of the Hazardous Substances Management Division (HSMD) include regulatory activities for framing necessary Rules relating to environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes / chemicals, plastics and municipal solid wastes under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and promotional activities by providing necessary financial support to the concerned agencies for their implementation.

The National River Conservation Directorate, functioning under the Ministry is engaged in implementing the River and Lake Action Plans under the National Lake Conservation Plan (NLCP) and National River Conservation Plan (NRCP) by providing assistance to the State Governments.

The Scheme of National Natural Resource Management System (NNRMS) involves utilization of remote sensing technology for accurate inventory of resources such as land water forests, minerals oceans, etc. and to utilize the information for monitoring changes in ecological system.

The National Museum of National History (NMNH), a subordinate organization of the Ministry, was opened to public in 1978 to create public awareness in preservation and conservation of environment and nature.

Realizing the need of appropriate environmental information, the Ministry has set up an Environmental Information System (ENVIS) as a plan programme and as a comprehensive network in environmental information collection, collation, storage, retrieval and dissemination to varying users, which include decision- makers, researchers, academicians, policy planners, research scientists, etc.

WET LANDS

February 2 is World Wetlands Day. It marks the date of signing of convention on wetlands and Feb. 2, 1971 in Iranian city of Ramsar.

Different type of Wetlands:

1. Marshes / snaps forest in coted ivore (ivory coast)

2. The ruoergai marshes on eastern edge of Tibetan plateau

3. Vambanad kayal in Kerala

4. Thelum

5. Tular lake

6. Loktak lake

7. Chilika lake

LIST OF WETLANDS OF INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE

UNDER RAMSAR CONVENTION IN INDIA

S.No.

Name of Wetland

Date of Declaration

State

1.

Ashtamudi Wetland

19-08-2002

Kerala

2.

Bhitarkanika Mangroves

19-08-2002

Odisha

3.

Bhoj Wetland

19-08-2002

Madhya Pradesh

4.

Chandertal Wetland

08-11-2005

Himachal Pradesh

5.

Chilika Lake

01-10-1981

Odisha

6.

Deepor Beel

19-08-2002

Assam

7.

East Kolkata Wetlands

19-08-2002

West Bengal

8.

Harike Lake

23-03-1990

Punjab

9.

Hokera Wetland

08-11-2005

Jammu & Kashmir

10.

Kanjli

22-01-2002

Punjab

11.

Keoladeo National Park MR

01-10-1981

Rajasthan

12.

Kolleru Lake

19-08-2002

Andhra Pradesh

13.

Loktak Lake MR

23-03-1990

Manipur

14.

Point Calimere

19-08-2002

Tamil Nadu

15.

Pong Dam Lake

19-08-2002

Himachal Pradesh

16.

Renuka Wetland

08-11-2005

Himachal Pradesh

17.

Ropar

22-01-2002

Punjab

18.

Rudrasagar Lake

08-11-2005

Tripura

19.

Sambhar Lake

23-03-1990

Rajasthan

20.

Sasthamkotta Lake

19-08-2002

Kerala

21.

Surinsar – Mansar Lakes

08-11-2005

Jammu & Kashmir

22.

Tsomoriri

19-08-2002

Jammu & Kashmir

23.

Vembanad-Kol Wetland

19-08-2002

Kerala

24.

Wular Lake

23-03-1990

Jammu & Kashmir

25.

Upper Ganga River (Brijghat to Narora Stretch) MR-sites under Montreaux Record

08-11-2005

Uttar Pradesh

LIST OF IDENTIFIED WETLANDS IN DIFFERENT STATE

UNDER UWCP (as on June 26, 2009)

S.No.

Name of State / UT

Name of Wetland

1.

Andhra Pradesh

1. Kolleru

2.

Assam

1. Deepol Beel

2. Urpad Beel

3. Sone Beel

3.

Bihar

1. Kabar

2. Barilla

3. Kusheshwar Asthan

4.

Gujarat

1. Nalsarovar

2. Great Rann of Kachh

3. Thol Bird Sanctuary

4. Khijadiya Bird Sanctuary

5. Little Rann of Kachh

6. Pariej

7. Wadhwana

8. Nanikakrad

5.

Haryana

1. Sultanpur

2. Bhindawas

6.

Himachal Pradesh

1. Renuka

2. Pong Dam

3. Chandratal

4. Rewalsar

5. Khajjiar

7.

Jammu & Kashmir

1. Wultar

2. Tso Morari

3. Tisgut Tso & Chisul Marshes

4. Hokersar

5. Mansar-Surinsar

6. Ranjitsagar

7. Pangong Tsar

8. Gharana

9. Hygam

10. Mirgund

11. Shalbugh

12. Chushul & Hanley

8.

Jharkhand

1. Udhwa

2. Tilaiya Dam

9.

Karnataka

1. Magadhi

2. Gudavi Bird Sanctuary

3. Bonal

4. Hidkal & Ghataprabha

5. Heggeri

6. Ranganthittu

7.  K.G. Koppa Wetland

10.

Kerala

1. Ashtamudi

2. Sasthamkotta

3. Kottuli

4. Kadulandi

5. Vembnad Kol

11.

Madhya Pradesh

1. Barna

2. Yashwant Sagar

3. Wetland of Ken River

4. National Chambal Sanctuary

5. Ghatigaon

6. Ratapani

7. Denwa Tawa Wetland

8. Kanha Tiger Reserve

9. Pench Tiger Reserve

10. Sakhyasagar

11. Dihaila

12. Govindsagar

13. Sirpur

12.

Maharashtra

1. Ujni

2. Jayakawadi

3. Nalganga Wetland

13.

Manipur

1. Loktak

2. Umiam

14.

Mizoram

1. Tamdil

2. Palak

15.

Odisha

1. Chilka

2. Kuanria Wetland

3. Kanjia Wetland

4. Daha Wetland

5. Anusupa

16.

Puducherry

1. Ousteri lake

17.

Punjab

1. Harike

2. Ropar

3. Kanjli

4. Nangal

18.

Rajasthan

1. Sambhar

19.

Sikkim

1. Khechuperi Holy Lake

2. Tamze Wetland

3. Tembao Wetland Complex

4. Phendang Wetland Complex

5. Gurudokmar Wetland

6. Tsomgo Wetland

20.

Tamil Nadu

1. Point Calimer

2. Kaliveii

3. Pallaikarni

21.

Tripura

1. Rudrasagar

2. Gumti reservoir

22.

Uttar Pradesh

1. Nawabganj

2. Sandi

3. Lakh Bahoshi

4. Samaspur

5. Alwara Wetland

6. Semarai Lake

7. Nagaria Lake

8. Keetham Lake

9. Shekha Wetland

10. Saman Bird Sanctuary

11. Sarsai Nawar

12. Patna Bird Sanctuary

13. Chando Wetland, Basti

14. Tal-Baghel Wetland

15. Taal Ganbhirvan & Taal Salona

16. Aadi jal Jeev Jheel

23.

Uttaranchal

1. Ban Ganga Jhilmil Tal

2. Asan

24.

West Bengal

1. East Calcutta Wetland

2. Sunderbans

3. Ahiron Beel

4. Rasik Beel

5. Santragach

6. Patlakhawa-Rasomat

25.

UT (Chandigarh)

1. Sukhna