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INDIA : ENERGY
Thursday, 24 May 2012 02:33

 

INDIA : ENERGY


INSTITUTION

HEAD OFFICE

National Power Training Institute (NPTI)

Faridabad

It is registered society with ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001 certificationy.

Central Power Research Institute (CPRI)

--

It is a society which functions as national testing and certification authority for ensuring their reliability. It has been given ‘observer status’ in the group of Short Circuit Testing Liason of Europe.

Appellate Tribunal for Electricity

Delhi 7 April, 2004

Statutory body set up by the Govt. of India under Section 110 of Electricity Act, 2003.

Solar Energy Centre

1982

It is an integral part of Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources for Development and promotion of solar energy technologies.

Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET)

Chennai

It makes domestically owned wind industry Internationally competitive. Its wind turbine test facility is at Kayathar in Thoothukudi (Tuticorin). TN.

Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA)

It is a public sector NBFC which finances grid interactive renewable power projects. It is ISO 9001:2001 certified.

CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE BILL, 2010

The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010 seeks to create a mechanism for compensating victims of nuclear damage arising from a nuclear incident. The Standing Committee tabled its report in Parliament on August 19, 2010, following which the government circulated a list of amendments to the Bill.

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE BILL

  • The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill, 2010 fixes liability for nuclear damage and specifies procedures for compensating victims.
  • The Bill fixes non-fault liability on operators and gives them a right of recourse against certain persons. It caps the liability of the operator at Rs. 500 crore. For damage exceeding this amount, and up to 300 million SDR, the central government will be liable.
  • All operators (except the central government) need to take Insurance or provide financial security to cover their liability.
  • For facilities owned by the government, the entire liability up to 300 million SDR will be borne by the government.
  • The Bill specifies who can claim compensation and the authorities who will assess and award compensation for nuclear damage.
  • Those not complying with the provisions of the Bill can be penalized.
  • Power development in India commenced at with the commissioning of electricity supply in Darjeeling during 1897, followed by a hydropower station at Sivasamudram in Karnataka, 1902.
  • The Ministry of Power is primarily responsible for the development of electrical energy in the country assisted by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA).
  • The target of power generation for 2009-10 has been fixed at 789.51 Bus. The plant load factor (PLF) has improved from 52.8% in 1990-91 to 77.19% in 2008-09.
  • 50,000 MW Hydro Electric Initiative: Under the 50,000 MW initiative launched by the Government in 2003-04, for the purpose of preparation of Preliminary Feasibility Reports (PFRs) were taken up by CEA. The PFRs were completed in September 2004.
  • A national power grid in the country is being developed in phased manner. By now, all the regional grids have already been inter-connected. At present, except Southern Region, all the other four regions are inter-connected in synchronous mode and are operating in parallel.
  • In 1992, the Eastern Region and the North-Eastern Region were connected by a 220 kV double circuit transmission line, and are operating in synchronism since then.
  • During 10th Plan (2007-2012), major achievements were addition of Talcher-Kolar HVDC Bipole, second module of HVDC back-to-back system between SR and ER at Gazuwaka, HVDC back-to-back system between NR and ER at Sasaram, synchronous inter-connection of NER / ER grid with WR grid by Rourkela – Raipur 400 kV D/C line, synchronous inter-connection of NER/ER/WR grid with NR grid 400 kV D/C (quad) line and Agra-Malanpur 765 kV transmission line (operated at 400 kV).
  • During 11th Plan (2012-2017), inter-regional transmission systems of 24600 MWA capacity have been planned and it is expected that, by the end of 11th Plan, total inter-regional transmission capacity of the National Power Grid would be increased to 38650 MW.
  • During 12th Plan (112-17), inter-regional transmission systems of about 37000 MW capacity are being planned.
  • Central Electricity Authority (CEA), a statutory organization formed under Section 3(1) of the Electricity Supply Act, 1948 which has been superseded by Section 70(1) of Electricity Act, 2003. It acts as advisory body to the Central Government. State Government and Regulatory Commissions on all technical matters relating to generation, transmission and distribution of electricity.
  • The Electricity Act, 2003 has been enacted the 10th June 2003 which repealed the Indian Electricity Act, 1910, the Electricity (Supply) Act, 1948 and the Electricity Regulatory Commission Act, 1998. Section 177 of the Electricity Act, 2003 requires that the Central Electricity Authority to make regulations consistent with the Act and rules to carry out provisions of this Act.
  • The Central Government has established Appellate Tribunal for Electricity under Section 110 of the Electricity Act, 2003 on 7th April, 2004, headquarters at Delhi, which will hear appeals against orders of the Regulatory Commissions/Adjudicating Officers.
  • The Appellate Tribunal win near appeals against orders of the Regulatory Commissions /Adjudicating Officers. The National Electricity Policy has been notified by the Government under the Act. Competitive bidding guidelines have been issued by the Government. The Tariff Policy has been notified.
  • As per the provision of the Electricity Act, 2003, every distribution licensee shall have to establish a forum for redressal of grievances of the Consumers in accordance with the guidelines as specified by the State Electricity Regulatory Commission.
  • With the enactment of Electricity Act, 2003, a whole new system was evolved where private players were invited to be an active participant in the power sector.
  • In order to achieve these objectives, the Government has issued National Electricity Policy and Tariff Policy.
  • The Government has also set up Special Purpose Vehicle under Power Finance Corporation (PPC) for collective procurement of power on behalf of the distribution utilities by inviting tariff based bids for supplying power from ultra mega power projects.
  • The private sector contributed 2,670 MW to generation capacity during period 2002-07. Since then capacity of 6,055 MW has been commissioned and another about 16266 MW capacity is under construction and likely to be commissioned by 2012.
  • Mega Power Policy was launched in November 1995 for providing impetus to development of large size (mega) power projects in the country and derive benefit from economies of scale.
  • These guidelines were modified in 1998 and 2002 and were last amended in April 2006 to encourage power development in Jammu & Kashmir and the North-Eastern. Ministry of Power revisited source of provisions of the present Mega Power Policy in Dec., 2009.
  • The States of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Kerala, Gujarat, Bihar, and Punjab have passed anti-theft legislation and as per the provisions of Section 153 of the Electricity Act, 2003. Special courts dealing with Power theft have been set up in the States of Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal & Delhi.
  • Consumer Grievances Redressal Forum have been established in 22 States by the Distribution Companies as            per Section 42(5) of the Act. Every State Electricity Regulatory Commission shall appoint or designate an          Ombudsman as per Section 42(6) of the Act. Any consumer who is aggrieved by the non-redressal of his grievances may make a representation for the redressal of his grievances to the Ombudsman.
  • Central Govt. had given support in the 10th Plan in the form of ACCELERATED POWER DEVELOPMENT AND       REFORMS PROGRAMME which has two investment component to support capital investment and an incentive component for actual cash loss reduction.                                                                                                                 In the 11th Plan, the scheme has been restructured. The target under Restructured APDRP (R-APDRRP) is to achieve 15% on sustained basis in the project areas.
  • Private Sector Participation in Hydro Power Projects: The Indian Government announced a policy in 1991 which allowed private sector participation in power generation schemes. It was decided in February, 1995 that no private power project proposal would be considered by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA), if the project was not awarded through the International Competitive Bidding (ICB) route after a cut-off date of 18th February, 1995.
  • As per Hydro Power Policy, 2008, exemption from tariff based bidding up to January, 2011, is also extended to private sector hydroelectric projects, which obtain CEA’s concurrence, sign PPAs with distribution licensees and achieve financial closure before January, 2011. In order to enable the project developer to recover the costs incurred by him he would be allowed to get sales of up to a maximum of 40% of the saleable energy. This incentive would be reduced in steps for delay in commissioning. The project authorities should bear the State Government share of 10% of the RGGVY within this surface distance of the Power House/Dam.
  • The National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Ltd., is a Schedule ‘A’ Enterprise of the Government. The NHPC has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Uttaranchal Government for the implementation of a 240 MW Chungar Chal, 630 MW Garba Tawaghat and 55 MW Karmoli Lumti Tulli Projects in Uttaranchal. Power Purchase agreements have been signed for Kishanganga, Nimmo Bazgo, Chutak, Uri-II, Dul Hasti, Chamera-III, and Teesta Low Dam Project Stage-IV with the concerned beneficiaries. The NHPC has signed agreements with the Government of Sikkim for the execution of the 495 MW Teesta Stage-IV and 210 MW Lachen Hydroelectric   Projects in Sikkim of BOOM basis.

 

NTPC: PROJECT PROFILE

I.    PROJECTS COMPLETED IN X PLAN (2002-2007)

S.No.

Project

State

Capacity (MW)

1.

Dulhasti

Jammu & Kashmir

390

2.

Sewa-II

Jammu & Kashmir

120

3.

Dhauliganga-I

Uttaranchal

280

4.

Teesta-V

Sikkim

510

5.

Chamera-II

Himachal Pradesh

300

6..

Bav-II

Maharashtra

37

7.

Teesta low dam stage-IV

West Bengal

168

8.

Teesta low dam state-III

West Bengal

132

9.

Puruliapass

West Bengal

900

10.

Omkareshwar (NHDC)

Madhya Pradesh

520

11.

Indira Sagar (NHDC)

Madhya Pradesh

1000

TOTAL:                                                                            4357

 

II.   PROJECTS TO BE COMPLETED IN XI PLAN (2007-2012)

S.No.

Project

State

Capacity (MW)

1.

Parbati – II

Himachal Pradesh

800

2.

Parbati – III

Himachal Pradesh

520

3.

Chamera – III

Himachal Pradesh

231

4.

Siang Middle Site

Arunachal Pradesh

1000

5.

Subansiri Upper Site

Arunachal Pradesh

2000

6.

Subansiri Middle

Arunachal Pradesh

1600

7.

Subansiri Lower

Arunachal Pradesh

2000

8.

Dibang

Arunachal Pradesh

3000

9.

Pakal Dul

Jammu & Kashmir

1000

10.

Bursur

Jammu & Kashmir

1020

11.

Uri – III

Jammu & Kashmir

240

12.

Nimmo – BAZGO

Jammu & Kashmir

45

13.

Chutak

Jammu & Kashmir

44

14.

Kishanganga

Jammu & Kashmir

330

15.

Loktak D/s

Manipur

90

16..

Bav – I

Maharashtra

13

17.

Lakhear Vyasi

Uttaranchal

420

18.

Kotli Bhel

Uttarnachal

850

TOTAL:                                                                         15208

III.  PROJECTS TO BE COMPLETED IN XII PLAN (2012-2017)

S.No.

Project

State

Capacity (MW)

1.

Siang Lower Site

Arunachal Pradesh

1700

2.

Siang Upper Site

Arunachal Pradesh

1000

TOTAL:                                                                  2700

  • The NTPC Ltd. (formerly National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd.) was incorporated in November 1975 with the objective to plan, promote and organize an integrated development of thermal power in the country. NTPC limited a schedule ‘A’ Navratna Company is the single largest power generator in India.

 

NTPC: PROJECT PROFILE

I. COAL BASED STATIONS.

S.No.

Plants

State

Capacity (MW)

1.

Singrauli

Uttar Pradesh

2,000

2.

Korba

Chhattisgarh

2,100

3.

Ramagundam

Andhra Pradesh

2.600

4.

Farkka

West Bengal

1,600

5.

Vindhyachal

Madhya Pradesh

3,260

6.

Rihand

Uttar Pradesh

2,000

7.

Kahalgaon

Bihar

2,340

8.

Dadri

Uttar Pradesh

840

9.

Talcher Kaniha

Odisha

3,000

10.

Feroze Gandhi, Unchahara

Uttar Pradesh

1,050

11.

Talcher Thermal

Odisha

460

12.

Simhadri

Andhra Pradesh

1,000

13.

Tanda

Uttar Pradesh

440

14.

Badarpur

Delhi

705

15.

NCTPP, Dadri

Uttar Pradesh

1,820

16.

Sipat – II

Chhattisgarh

1,000

TOTAL (Coal):                                                                               25,375

II. GAS / LIQUID FUEL BASED STATIONS.

S.No.

Plants

State

Capacity (MW)

1.

Anta

Rajasthan

413

2.

Auraiya

Uttar Pradesh

652

3.

Kawas

Gujarat

645

4.

Dadri

Uttar Pradesh

817

5.

Jhanor-Gandhar

Gujarat

648

6.

Kayamkulam

Kerala

350

7.

Faridabad

Haryana

430

TOTAL: (Gas)                                                           3,955

Through Joint Venture                                            2,864

Grand Total (Coal 25,375 + Gas 3,955 + JV 2,864) 32,149

@ Capacity presently under implementation Talcher II 500 MW, Ramagundam III 500 MW, Rihand II 1000 MW, Vindhyachal 1000 MW, Unchahar 210 MW, Kahalgaon Stage II, Phase I 1500 MW, Phase II 1000 MW.

  • Ratnagiri Gas and Power Private Ltd. was formed on 8th July, 2005 as a joint venture between NTPC, GAIL, MSEB holding company and Indian Financial Institutions. The NTPC is implementing its first hydro project, the 800 MW Koldam Hydroelectric Power Project (HEPP) in Himachal Pradesh. Further, NTPC has signed the Implementation Agreements for execution of Loharinag Pala HEPP (600 MW), Tapovan-Vishnugad HEPP (520 MW) and Rupsiabagar Khasiyabara HEPP (260 MW). Moreover, NTPCs subsidiary NTPC Hydro Ltd., (NHL) has signed the Implementation Agreements for execution of Late-Tapovan (171 MW) HEPP and Rammam-III (120 MW) HEPP.
  • During the year, a consortium comprising NTPC Ltd., Canoro Resources Ltd. and Geo Petrol International has been allotted an oil exploration block in Arunachal Pradesh. A Production Sharing Contract (PSC) for the block has been signed between the Government of India and the Consortium.
  • The NTPC was allotted Pakri Barwadih coal mining blocks by the Government of India. 2 mine blocks at Brahmini and Chichro Patsimal in Odisha are to be developed through a 50:50 joint venture between the NTPC and Coal India Limited.
  • SAIL Power Supply Company (P) Ltd. (NSPSCL) for operating the Captive Power Plants of Durgapur and Rourkela Steel Plants having total capacity of 240 MW, the Bhilai Electric Supply Company Ltd., (BESCL), for operating Captive Power plant (74 MW) at Bhilai Steel Plant of SAIL.
  • A Scheme “Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana” for Rural Electricity Infrastructure and Household Electrification was launched in April, 2005 for the attainment of the National Common Minimum Programme of providing access to electricity to all Rural Household in five years. Under this scheme 90% capital subsidy would be provided for projects.
  • The Rural Electrification Corporation Limited (REC) was incorporated as a Company under Companies Act, 1956 in 1969 with the main objective of financing rural electrification schemes in the country.
  • The Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID) was established as a Government, enterprise on 23rd October, 1989. POWERGRID was notified as the Central Transmission Utility (CTU) of the country in 1998. Further, Government of India conferred the status of “Navratna” to POWERGRID on 1st May, 2008. POWERGRID has already modernized RLDCs with Unified Load Dispatch and Communication (ULDC) schemes in all the regional power grid of India, and for coordination at national level, National Load Dispatch Centre (NLDC) at Delhi with back up at Kolkata, has been commissioned in Feb., 2009.
  • The Power Finance Corporation Limited (PFC) is established on 16th July 1986, under the Companies Act, 1956. PFC is a Scheduled-A, Navratna CPSE in the Financial Services Sector, under the administrative control of the Ministry of Power, with 89.78% shareholding of the Government of India. Its Registered and Corporate Offices are at New Delhi. PFC was initiative to enhance finding of power projects in India, PFC provides technical, management advisory and consultancy services and implemented and / or is implementing schemes like Restructured Accelerated Power Development & Reform Program (R-APDRP), Accelerated Generation & Supply Programme (AG&SP), Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) and Delivery through decentralized Management (DDM) PFC has also established the ‘Power Lenders’ Club’, comprising 18 banks and includes major financial institutions. PFC is also participating in the equity of Power Exchange India Limited (PXI), a company promoted by NSE and NCDEX, PFC, NTPC, NHPC and TCS have promoted ‘National Power Exchange Limited’ a company incorporated under The Companies Act, 1956. Which is yet to start its operation and will have a nationwide presence in the form of electronic exchange for trading in power.
  • The Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited – SJVN (formerly NJPC) was established on 24th May, 1988 (a joint venture of the Government of India and the Government of Himachal Pradesh) with equity participation in the ratio of 3:1 respectively, to plan, investigate, organize, execute, operate and maintain Hydro-electric power projects. SJVN is a “Schedule-A” Mini Ratna Company.
  • National Power Training Institute (NPTI), committed to the development of Human Resources in Power Sector with its corporate centre at Faridabad and five regional institutes located at Neyveli (Tamil Nadu), Durgapur (West Bengal), Badarpur (New Delhi), Nagpur (Maharashtra) and Guwahati (Assam) and two specialized centres (Power Systems Training Institute (PSTI) & Hot Line Training Centre (HLTC) at Bengaluru, Centre for Advanced Management and Power Studies (CAMPS) at Faridabad (Haryana). NPTI (NE-R) is currently operating from temporary site at Narangi complex of ASEB, Guwahati and a training institute, as sanctioned by the Govt. of India at a cost of Rs. 18.29 crores, is in the advanced stage of completion at Kahilipara, Guwahati.
  • The Central Power Research Institute (CPRI), a Society registered under the Societies Registration Act as National Laboratory to carry out applied research in Electrical Power Engineering and is also functioning as an independent National Testing and Certification Authority for Electrical Equipment. The CPRI’s laboratories are accredited by the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration of Laboratories (NABL) as well by INTERTEKASTA, UK for testing of Low Voltage & Medium Voltage equipments, Power Transformers & Power Cables, CPRI has Membership in the group of Short Circuit Testing Laision (STL) of Europe and are also approved for some products, by Underwriters Laboratories & Canadian Standard Association. Its Research and Consultancy works have been certified for ISO-9001-2000 by NVT, KEMA. It has been recognized as Approved Test House by Electrical Directorate, Kingdom of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. CPRI has served as Advisor-cum-Consultant under ARDRP-I for Karnataka, Kerala & Andhra Pradesh and is empanelled as IT consultant for R – APDRP and Third Party Inspection Agency for Karnataka and Kerala under the Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyuthikaran Yojana Scheme (RGGVY).
  • North Eastern Electric Power Corporation was established on 2nd April, 1976 (completely owned by Government) under the Ministry of Power to plan, promote, investigate, survey, design, construct, generate, operate and maintain power stations in the N.E. Region. It is an ISO:9001:2000 (Quality) ISO 14001:1996 (Environment) and OHSAS-18001:1999 (Safety) Company with its Corporate Office at Shillong.
  • Bhakra-Nangal Project was a joint venture of the states of Punjab and Rajasthan. After re-organization of erstwhile Punjab State in 1966 ‘Bhakra Management Board’ was constituted on 1st October, 1967 under Section 79 of Punjab Re-Organization Project. Beas Construction Board was constituted under the Punjab Re-Organization Act 1966 for construction of Beas Project’. Bhakra Management Board’ was renamed as ‘Bhakra Beas Management Board’ (BBMB) on 15th May, 1976 after completion of Beas Project.
  • The Bureau of Energy Efficiency set up under the Energy Conservation Act, 2001 with the mission to develop policies and strategies with a thrust on self-regulation and market principles, within the overall framework of the Energy Conservation Act (EC Act), 2001. The Energy Conservation Act came into existence in March 2002.

(i) Bachat Lamp Yojana: The Bachat Lamp Yojana, launched on 28th May, 08, under the Clean Development Mechanism of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) with the idea to provide high quality CFLs to domestic consumers for about Rs. 15 per Lamp. Which is comparable to that of incandescent bulbs.

(ii) Standards & Labeling Scheme: Launched on 18th May 06 by, the Ministry of Power, Government of India   initially on a voluntary basis to lay down minimum energy performance standards. For frost free, direct cool refrigerators, tubular fluorescent lamps and air conditioners with the further extension to cover air-conditions, distribution transformers and three phase squirrel cage induction motors as well.

  • Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC): The Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), launched on 27th May, 07, by India government, for new commercial buildings having a connected load of more than 500 kW   and has initially been launched on voluntary basis.
  • The Oil and Natural Gas Commission, established on
  • Hydrocarbons India Limited’ established in 1965
  • Oil India Limited (OIL), established in 1959,
  • GAIL (India) Limited, a ‘Navratna’ company,
  • The Petroleum Conservation Research Association set up
  • Lignite reserves at Neyveli are

 

 

NATIONAL BIOGAS PROGRAMME

Biogas obtained from the biogas plants through anaerobic digestion contains a mixture of methane (55-65 per cent), carbon dioxide (35-40 per cent) and rest other gases. The National Biogas Programme was initiated in 1981-82 for the promotion of family size biogas plants with the aim of providing a clean and cheap source of energy along with other benefits such as enriched organic manure, improved sanitation and hygiene and reduction in drudgery for women. Three types of biogas designs, namely, the floating drum type or KVIC design, fixed dome type and bag type portable digester made of rubberized nylon fabric are being propagated under this programme. India is second after China in biogas plants.

  • Integrated Rural Energy Programme: started with the aim to meet the energy needs of group of villages which was modified in 2003-04 and included cluster of district and state as well Five Regional Training Centres set up under the programme at Delhi, Lucknow, Amrol (Gujarat), Bangalore and Shillong.
  • The Remote Village Electrification programme, since 2001-02, has India receives solar energy due to
  • Hydrogen Energy: A National Hydrogen Energy Board has been
  • Fuel Cells: BHEL developed a 3 kW automated Proton
  • Geothermal Energy: Magnetotelluric studies by
  • Solar Energy Centre: The Solar Energy Centre, established in
  • Centre for wind Energy Technology: C-WET has been set up at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, and its wind turbines test station is located at Kayathar in district Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu. It has five units namely, Research and Development, Wind Resources Assessment, Wind Turbine Testing, Standards and Certification, and Information, Training and Commercial Services.
  • Rajiv Gandhi Akshay Urja Diwas: An mass
  • District Advisory Committees: District Advisory Committees have established in
  • Special Area Demonstration Programe: The Special Area Demonstration programme
  • Akshay Urja Shops: With a view to
  • The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas is
  • Neyveh Lignite Corporation (NLC): is an integrated mining
  • During the period April to December 2009 Lignite Production and power generation achievements of NLC were 16.30 MT and 13064.17 MV respectively against the target of 15.17 MT and 11876.00 MV.