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INDIA : COMMUNICATION
Saturday, 05 May 2012 07:14

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM IN INDIA

INSTITUTION

HEAD OFFICE

Advanced Level Telecom (ALTTC)

Ghaziabad, 1975

(It was set up with the assistance of UNDF and International Telecommunications Union. It is an ISO 9001: 2000 certified Institute).

Bharat Ratna Bhim Rao Ambedkar Institute of Telecom Training (BRBRAITT)

Jabalpur

Telecommunication Engineering Centre

New Delhi

(It is an S&T Institution of Deptt. Of Telecom.)

POSTS

The postal system, established in 1766 by Lord Clive followed by establishment of G.P.O. in Calcutta (1774, Warren Hastings). First Post Office Act of 1837 regulated the Post Office on a uniform basis as all India service after combining the post office organization of the three Presidencies. The Post Office Act of 1854 reconstructed the structure of the postal system and the Post Office of India was placed on the present administrative footing on 1st Oct. 1854. Indian Post Office Act, 1898 is regulating current postal system.

Besides providing postal communication facilities, the Post Office network has also provided facilities for remittance of funds, banking and insurance services from the latter half of the 19th century.

The Department has about 2.18 lacs departmental employees and about 2.76 lacs Gramin Dak Sevaks as on 31st March, 2009.

Main System divided into two classes First-class mail, e.g., Post Cards, letters and envelops, are given airlift wherever found advantageous between stations connected by air.

Second-class mail, e.g., book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals are carried by surface transport.

NEW MAIL PARADIGM

Mail business Centres (MBCs) are established as an integrated mail business-hub for collection, processing and delivery of (bulk) mail and up to March, 09, No. of MBCs reached to 161. For quick processing and delivery, The Department has plans to establish Automatic Mail Processing Centres whereas to resolve transmission problems, to introduce two more freighter aircraft other than NE Service (first freighter aircraft induced in the North-East Region (Kolkata – Guwahati – Imphal – Agartala – Kalkata route on a daily basis).

INTERNATIONAL MAILS

India is a member of the Universal Postal Union (UPU) as well of the Asian Pacific Postal Union (APPU) since 1876 and 1964 respectively. These organizations have objective to extend, facilitate and improve postal relations among countries. India exchanges mail with more than 217 countries. For improvement in the service, UP-gradation of International Mail Processing Facilities at the Office of Exchange has been implemented under 11th five year plan. India has only inward Money Order services with 27 countries except with Bhutan and Nepal (two-way Money Order Service). The department has introduced electronic International Money Order Service (Inward) through International Financial System Software developed by Universal Postal Union (UPU).

Speed Post: Introduced on 1st August, 86 for the delivery of letters, documents and parcels within certain time frame failing result in full refund of postage. The service is available within the country through 266 National and 857 State Speed Post Centres and internationally to 97countries.

Speed Net: An Internet based track and trace service, launched on 3rd Jan., 02 and now operating from all 315 National Speed Post Centres as well 857 State Speed Centres.

Business Post: Launched on 1st Jan., 97 in order to meet specific needs of bulk customers for pre-mailing activities.

Bill Mail Service: Launched on 15th Sept., 03 to provide a cost effective solution for periodic mails followed by launching of National Bill Mail Service in Feb., 05 which allows Bill Mail Service items to be bundled in package destined to same city and charges for items are only at Local Bill mail service rates.

Express Parcel Post: Provides time bound door-to-door delivery and VPP service upto Rs. 50,000 to the corporate users and business establishments on contractual basis through surface transport from 315 National Speed Post Centres.
Logistics Post: Launched in 2004-05, to carry consignments from point to point without any maximum limit. Value added services like pick-up, delivery, track and trace are also being provided in Logistics Post.

Media Post: It offers a unique advertisement media through Postcards Inland letter cards, Aerogram, other postal stationary and sponsorship on the letter boxes for corporate and government organizations to reach potential customers.

Retail Post: It offers the facility to collect all public utility bills and sale of application forms for government and other private organizations.

Direct Post: Launched on 2nd June, 05 to handle delivery of unaddressed mail to the doorsteps of the target population followed by launching of a value addition to the service on 18th April, 2006, combining advertising mail with transaction mail like bills etc.

e-Post: Launched on 30th Jan., 2004 and enables people, to send and receive message or scanned images through e-mail in all post offices, who do not have access to the internet or posses an e-mail ID followed by   launching of a corporate version of e-post on 18th Oct., 2005, which allows simultaneous sending of e-post to a maximum of 9999 addresses.

e-Bill Posts: Used for payment of bills/dues of electricity, telephone, mobile etc. at the Post Office counters. Currently, Service is only available at Bangaluru and Kolkata.

NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE ACT (NREGA)

Launched in Sept., 05 by India government to provide at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in every financial year to every household in rural areas and entrusted Post Offices (including HOs/SOs /BOs) with the responsibility of disbursing wages of beneficiaries. For year 2009-10, Allocated amount is Rs. 100 crores it is expected that Post Offices will service upto five crore accounts.

POSTAL LIFE INSURANCE

Launched in 1884 as a welfare measure for Postal employees and further extended to the employees of Central / State Government, Public Sector Undertakings, Universities, Government-aided institutes, nationalized banks, financial institutions and Gramin Dak Sevaks of the Postal Department and Defence and Paramilitary personnel.

PLI offers seven insurance schemes, namely:

(1) Suraksha (Whole Life Assurance);

(2) Suvidha (Convertible Whole Life Assurance);

(3) Santosh (Endowment Assurance);

(4) Sumangal (Anticipated Endowment Assurance);

(5) Yugal Suraksha (Joint Life Endowment Assurance for couple);

(6) Children Policy (As on March 2006) and

(7) Handicapped Policy.

TECHNOLOGY INDUCTION

Computerization and Networking of Post Offices: By the end of March, 09, the Department of Posts supplied computer and its peripherals to all Head Post Offices and some of sub post offices. The National Information Centre (NIC) is implementing a WAN (Wide Area Network) connecting entire postal network and setting up a National Data Centre at New Delhi and Mysore.

PROJECT ARROW AND LAUNCH OF NEW LOGO

Launched “Project Arrow” to give a new outlook to post offices by changing exterior and interior designs, upgrading infrastructure and enhancing core operation during 09-10. Under the Project Arrow, a New Logo representing India Post as a forward looking and modern organization, carrying emotion and expressions across physical distance, has been launched on 23rd Sept., 08 at New Delhi.

THE POST OFFICE SAVINGS BANK (POSB)

Operates the small savings schemes of Govt. of India, Ministry of Finance on an agency basis. It operate more than 17 million savings accounts. In terms of its existing mandate, the POSVB is fully geared to meet the banking requirements of small investors, particularly those who cannot readily access the commercial banks.

A Money Order is an order issued by the post office for the payment of a sum of money through the agency of Post Office. The amount for which a single money order may be issued must not exceed Rs. 5,000/-.

International Money Transfer Service: This service, operated in association with a multinational company western Union Financial Services International, provides the customers the facility of receiving remittances from 205 countries and territories on a real time basis.

Retailing of Mutual Funds and Bonds: The Department is retailing select mutual funds products of UTI mutual funds and pension products of ICICI Prudential through more than 800 identified post offices.

TELECOMUNICATIONS

The first Telegraph line between Kolkata and Diamond Harbour was opened in 1851 followed by another lines from Agra to Kolkata (March, 84). Telephone service was also introduced in Kolkata in 1881-82. The first automatic exchange was commissioned at Shimla in 1913-14. First National Telecom Policy was announced in 1994 followed by another after establishment of Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), in 1997. Today, the Indian has 3rd largest telecommunications network and the 2nd largest wireless network in the world. The wireless services has grown many fold and its share has to 92.44% till 31st Aug., 09. For the liberalization efforts of the Government, private sector has shown growth from 5% in 1999 to 80.98% in total telephone connections till Aug., 09. As well in rural areas while Village Public Telephone (VPTs) and Rural Community Phones (RCPs) will enable public access, a scheme of Rural Community Phones (RCPs) has been launched under Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) to create infrastructure. Recognizing the potential of Broadband service the Broadband policy announced (Oct., 04) to cover 20 million broadband subscribers by the end of 2010. In the 11th Plan target is to provide the broadband for all secondary and higher secondary schools, all Public Health Care Centres and Gram Panchayats.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): The total FDI equity inflows in the telecom sector is 8% of the total FDI equity inflows in India during 2000-09. Today, telecomm. is the third largest recipient of FDI after service (financial & non-financial) and computer hardware and software, which attract 23% and 11% respectively. Recently Government has issued Press Note No. 2/2009 regarding guidelines for calculation of total investment i.e., direct and indirect foreign investment in the Indian Company; and Press Note No. 3/2009 regarding guidelines for transfer of ownership or control of Indian Companies in sectors with caps from resident Indian citizens to Non resident entities.

Research & Development: Telecom Centres Of Excellence (TCOE) have been established in Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode. There are seven TCOEs at the premier academic institutes at IITs, IIM Ahmedabad and Indian Institute of Science, Bangaluru. A Telecom Entrepreneur Development Centres and Telecom Standard Development Centres are also being planned. India Telecom 2008: India Telecom 2008 with the theme of “connecting rural India”, held in New Delhi from 11-13 December, 08 and 3G mobile service is launched in it.

India Telecom 2009: A Seminar of two day on “How India can become a Leader in the Wireless World” was conducted to establish collaboration and provide platform for exchange of ideas with premier universities and research organizations of the world from different countries. During the submit, there was a CEOs / MDs with Hon’ble MOC & IT.

(i) Grameen Sanchar Sevak (GSS): Scheme carry a mobile Fixed Wireless Terminal (FWT) with display unit   and visit door to door to provide telephone facility in rural areas. The scheme is also available to existing STD/ISD/PCO on franchisee basis. It is implemented in whole country except in A&N, Haryana and Punjab which are already having sufficient/full coverage. The GSS is entitled to 20% commission on all outgoing calls. The GSS can charge Rs. 5/- for passing on the message.

(ii) Uncovered VPTs Under Bharat Nirman: Agreements were signed with M/s BSNL in November, 2004 to provide subsidy support for provision of VPTs in 62302 no. of uncovered villages in the country excluding those villages having population less than 100, those lying in deep forests and those affected with insurgency. The provided VPTs in these villages has been included as one of activities under Bharat Nirman Programme. As on 30-09-2009, 59800 VPTs i.e., about 96% of the VPTs have been provided. The remaining VPTs are likely to be provided in a phased manner by November, 2009.

(iii) Newly Identified VPTs: “Reconciliation of the VPTs working in the inhabited villages as per Census 2001 has recently been carried out taking into account the existing VPT and those provided under Bharat Nirman. All the remaining 62443 inhabited village as on 31-10-2008 as per Census 2001 irrespective of criteria of population, remoteness, accessibility and law and order situations have been included for provision of VPTs with subsidy support from USO Fund under this scheme. Agreements in this regard have been signed with   BSNL on 27-02-2009 a total number of 32932 VPTs have been provided under  this agreement as on 30-09-2009, the remaining VPTs are likely to be provided in a phased manner by February, 2011.

Replacement of MARR based VPTs (MARR-A & MARR-B) Agreements were signed with M/s BSNL for replacement of 1,85,121 number of VPTs with reliable technologies, which were earlier working on Multi Access Radio Relay (MARR) technology and installed before 01-04-2002. These included 7075 MARR VPTs already replaced before 30-06-2003 (MARR-B) and 139046 MARR VPTs to be replaced from 01-07-2003 onwards (MARR-A). A total number of 1,84,284 MARR VPTs have been replaced as on 30-09-2009. The remaining MARR VPTs are likely to be replaced by November, 2009.
Provision of Rural Community Phones (RCPs) Agreements were signed on 30-09-2004 for providing 40,705 Rural Community Phones (RCPs) [BSNL: 21,958, RIL: 18,747] in villages with population more than 2000 and not having PCO facility. Out of these, 40691 RCPs have been provided till September 2009 as per details given below. The remaining RCPs are likely to be provided by December 2009.

ELEVENTH PLAN BROAD PHYSICAL TARGETS IN TELECOM SECTOR

ACHIEVEMENTS / STATUS AS ON DECEMBER 2009

To reach a telecom subscriber  base of 600 million.

Total no. telephone connections (up to Dec., 2009): 562.15 million (wireless: 525.09 + wire line: 37.06 million). Overall tele-density at the end of December 2009 is 47.88 per cent (which in turn consists of urban tele-density of 110.96 per cent and rural tele-density of 21.16 per cent).

To provide 100 million rural telephone connections by 2010 and reach 200 million connections by 2012, that is to achieve rural tele-density of 25 per cent.

The no. of rural connections added upto to December, 2009 is 174.53 million and present rural tele-density is 21.16 per cent.

To provide telephone connection on demand across the country at an affordable price as envisaged in Broadband Policy 2004.

Almost achieved.

To provide broadband connection on demand across the country by 2012.

Programmes initiated. Total no. of Broadband connections: 7.82 million.

To provide Third Generation (3G) services in all cities / towns with more than 1 lakh population.

This is yet to be achieved, as 3G Spectrum is expected to be auctioned during first half of 2010.

To facilitate introduction of mobile TV.

Introduced on experimental basis in Mumbai and Delhi.

To provide broadband connectivity to every Secondary School (SS), health centre, Gram Panchayat (GP) on demand in two years.

Programmes initiated.

To make India a hub for telecom equipment manufacturing by facilitating establishment of telecom specific SEZs.

During Eleventh Plan the capital investment in Telecom Sector is around Rs. 830,000 crore. Further Nokia, Motorola, Flextronics, and Foxconn have set up SEZ units within the country for manufacturing mobile handsets.

Establishing Telecom Centres of Excellence in premier educational institutions and other reputed organizations in the country in PPP mode.

Under Telecom Development and Investment Promotion (TDIP) 7 Telecom Centres of Excellence (TCOEs) have been set up in PPP mode in various areas of Telecom Sector.

Shared Mobile Infrastructure Scheme (Phase 1): A scheme has been launched by USO Fund to provide subsidy support for setting up and managing 7871 number of infrastructure sites (towers) in 500 districts spread over 27 states for provision of mobile services in the specified rural and remote areas.

NATIONAL INFORMATICS CENTRE

A premier S&T organization of DIT has been providing informatics support to central ministries state governments and district administrations for the last few decades.

INTERNATIONAL LONG DISTANCE SERVICE

The International Long Distance (ILD) service is basically a network carriage service, providing International connectivity to the network operated by foreign carriers. In accordance with the New Telecom Policy – 1999, the Government opened the International Long Distance Service from 1st April, 2002 to the private operators. There is no restriction on the number of operators.

INFRASTRUCTURE PROVIDER CATEGORY – I (IP-I)

The applicant company for IP-I requires registration only with DoT. Companies registered as IP-I can provide assets such as dark fibre, right of way, dust space and tower. All Indian Registered companies are eligible to apply. There is no restriction on foreign equity and number of entrants. There is no entry fee and bank guarantee. The applicant company is required to pay Rs. 5,000 as processing fee along with the application. So far 273 companies have been registered as Infrastructure Provider Category-I.

POLICY FOR PUBLIC MOBILE RADIO TRUNK SERVICE (PMRTS)

Policy for Public Mobile Radio Trunk Service (PMRTS) in terms of NTP-99 was announced on 01.11.2011. The new PMRTS licenses are granted on non-exclusive ‘first come first service’ basis.

GLOBAL MOBILE PERSONAL COMMUNICATION BY SATELLITE (GMPCS)

Policy for grant of license for Global Mobile Personal Communication Satellite (GMPCS) service in terms of NTP-99 was finalized and announced on 02-11-2001. The process of grant of GMPCS license is a very involved process. The application of GMPCS license containing the entire proposal is submitted to Law Enforcing Agency for Security Clearance.

TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING CENTRE (TEC)

It is Technical Wing of DoT provides technical support to DoT, TEC publishes documents detailing the technical requirements for all telecom equipment to be used in various telecom networks in India. These documents are closely aligned with market needs, technological developments and international standards.

CENTRE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TELEMATICS (C-DOT)

Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) is the Telecom Research and Development Centre of the Government of India. It was established in 1984 to provide wide ranging, state-of-the–art and cost-effective indigenous total telecom solutions. Beginning the journey with digital switching systems.

WIRELESS PLANNING AND COORDINATION (WPC) WING

Wireless Planning and Coordination (WPC) Wing, established in 1952, is the national radio regulatory authority responsible for coordination and regulation of radio spectrum usages in the country. It is a nodal agency for all matters concerning International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

The Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) was formed on 1st October, 2000 by corporatization of the erstwhile Department of Telecom Services.

MAHANAGAR TELEPHONE NIGAM LIMITED (MTNL)

The Mananagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) came in to existence on 1st April, 1986 as a company wholly owned by the Government under the Department of Telecommunication, Ministry of Communications.

SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY PARKS OF INDIA (STPI)

It was set up in 1991 as an autonomous, under the department of Telecom. STPI’s main objective has been the promotion of software exports from the country.

e-Money Order: The Department of Posts has launched e-MO on 10th October, 2008. Electronic Money Order is a system that facilitates remittance of MOs electronically, for which post offices should have connectivity by WAN / Broadband.

ECS scheme: The Electronic Clearing Service is being offered in the Department of Posts at all the 15 locations of RBI and 21 locations of State Bank of India in connection with payment of monthly interest under “Monthly   Income Scheme” (MIS).

Since 1948, the Department of Posts has a well-established system of redressal of public grievances. Presently 3295 Computerized Customer Care Centres (CCCs) have been established at the District Headquarters / Divisional Headquarters across the country for online exchange of information amongst all the units for speedy redressal of grievances.

Today, the Indian telecommunications network with about 562.21 million telephone connections as on 31st December, 2009 is the second largest in the world. With 525.15 million as on 31st December, 2009, wireless phones, India has the 2nd largest wireless network in the world.

The growth of wireless services has been phenomenal, with wireless subscribers growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 60 per cent per annum since April, 2004 upto 31st March, 2009. The share of wireless phones has increased from 5.26 per cent in 1999 to 93.41 per cent in 31st August, 2009.

As on December, 2009, there are 174.58 million phones in rural areas with a tele-density of 21.19 at the end of 6thDecember, 2009.

Recognizing the potential of Broadband service in the growth of GDP and creation of an enabling environment for promoting knowledge based society, the Broadband policy announced in October, 2004 has been proposed in the Eleventh Plan targets to provide the broadband for all secondary and higher secondary schools, all the Public Health Care Centres and Gram Panchayats.

Today, telecom is the third major attracting FDI inflows after services and computer software sector. At present 74 per cent to 100 per cent FDI is permitted for various telecom services.

The major functions of the Telecom Commission include policy formulation, review of performance, licensing, wireless spectrum management, administrative monitoring of PSUs, research and development, standardization / validation of equipment and International Relations.

Licensing for National Long Distance (NLD) and International Long Distance (ILD) Service: After announcing opening up of ILDS and NLDS for free competition, Government has so far issued 24 ILDS licenses and 29 NLDS licenses (including BSNL) as on December 31, 2009.

The Universal Service Obligation Fund formed by an Act of Parliament is headed by the Administrator USO Fund appointed by the Central Government, for the administration of the Fund. The USO Fund was established with the fundamental objective of providing access to ‘Basic, telegraphs services to people in the rural and remote areas at affordable and reasonable prices’.

The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has always endeavoured to encourage greater competition in the telecom sector together with better quality and affordable prices in order to meet the objectives of New Telecom Policy, 1999.

The Telecom disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) was created in the year 2000 by the Central Government under the TRAI Act, 1997 to settle and adjudicate disputes involving licensor, service providers and a group of consumers on telecommunication services.

On March 10, 1978, Telecommunications Consultants India Ltd., (TCIL) was incorporated as a wholly owned Government of India Company. The Company was set up with the objective of extending the wide-ranging India Telecom expertise to friendly developing countries.

The Department of Information Technology is inter-alia responsible for formulation, implementation and review of national policies in the field of Information Technology. All Policy matters relating to silicon facility, computer based information technology, and processing including hardware and software, standardization of procedures and matters relating to e-commerce, internet information technology education and development of electronics.

National e-Governance Plan was approved in May 2006 with a vision to “Make all Government services accessible to the common man in his locality, through common service delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency and reliability of such services at affordable costs to realize the basic needs of the common man”.

State Wide Area Network (SWANS): Under this Scheme, technical and financial assistance are being provided to the States / UTs for establishing SWANs to connect all State / UT Headquarters up to the Block level via District / Sub-Divisional headquarters, in a vertical hierarchical structure with a minimum bandwidth capacity of 2 Mbps per link.

The State Data Centre Scheme for establishing Data Centres across 35 States / UTs across the country was approved by the Government on 24 January, 2008. The concept is to create State Data Centres for the states to consolidate infrastructure, services and application to provide efficient electronic delivery of G2G, G2C and G2B services.

e-District: The Project aims to target certain high volume-services currently not covered by any MMP under the NeGP and undertake back-end computerization to enable the delivery of these services through Common Service Centres.

India Development Gateway (InDG) is a nationwide initiative that seeks to provide responsible and credible information, products and services in local languages catering to the needs of rural communities.
The Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2000, a legal framework for transactions carried out electronically was enacted to facilitate e-Commerce, e-Governance and to take care of computer related offences. This was amended through the Information Technology (Amendment) Act 2008.

CERT-In is the national nodal agency for responding to computer security incidents as and when they occur.

The first and the only Cyber Court in the country has been established by the Central Government in accordance with the provisions contained under Section 48(1) of the Information Technology Act, 2000. The court was initially known as the Cyber Regulations Appellate Tribunal (CRAT).

The Nanotechnology Initiative programme of DIT was started in 2004 with focus on nano-electronics. The programme has been concentrating on institutional capacity building, infrastructure for Research & Development and human resources development in the area of nano-electronics towards making India a front runner in this revolutionary area.

e-Learning is one of the thrust area identified by DIT for imparting education using educational tools and communication media. It is the learning facilitated and supported by Information Communication Technologies (ICT), DIT has been financially supporting R&D projects in following thrust areas under e-Learning at various academic educational institutes, R&D Labs, etc.

One of the important recommendations of the National Knowledge Commission was to establish a National Knowledge Network (NKN), Government’s decision to set up the National Knowledge Network was announced by the Finance Minister in the Budget Speech of 2008-09. The Objective of the National Knowledge Network is to interconnect all Universities, Libraries, Laboratories, Hospitals and Agricultural Institutions to share data and resources across the country over the high speed (of gigabit capabilities) information network.

C-DAC is a premier R&D organization under the Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Communications and IT with a network of labs across the country.
Last Updated on Saturday, 05 May 2012 07:36