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Monday, 23 April 2012 08:00



National Bal Bhavan

New Delhi, 1956

(Autonomous body fully funded by HRD ministry to provide opportunities of creative.)

Kendrya Vidyalaya Sangathan


(It was approved in 1962 on recommendation of II Pay Commission. 3 Kendriya Vidyalayas are in Tehran, Moscow and Kathmandu.)

National Council of Education Research and Training (NCERT)

New Delhi

Urdu Language (NCPUL)

April 19

(functions as an autonomous body for promotion of Urdu language as well as Arabic and Persian.)

Central Institute of Indian Language (CIIL)


(Conducts research in areas of language analysis. It also runs regional language centres to help in meeting demand for training of teachers to implement 3 language formula).

Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages (CIEFL)


It is deemed university and autonomous body under Ministry of Human Resource Development offers training in Arabic, French, German, Japanese, Russian, and Spanish.

Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan

New Delhi, 1970

(Autonomous organization with deemed university status. It is fully funded by Govt. of India.

Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya

New Delhi

(It provides courses of study from Shastri to Vidya Vachaspati (D.Lit.)} Sanskrit Vidyapeetha.

Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR)

New Delhi, 1972

(It reviews the progress of historical research and encourages scientific writing of history.)

Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR)

New Delhi & Lucknow, 1977

(It reviews the progress, sponsors or assists projects and programmes of research in philosophy.)

Indian Institute of Advanced Studies (IIAS)

Shimla, 1965

(It is residential centre for advanced research in humanity, social sciences and Viatural sciences).

Indian Council of Social Science (ICSSR)

New Delhi

It is an autonomous body for promoting and coordinating social science research).

National Council of Rural Institute (NCRI)


(Autonomous organization fully funded by Central Governance to promote rural higher education in lines of Gandhi’s revolutionary ideas?)

Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU)

New Delhi. Sept., 1985

(It is responsible for promotion of open university and distance education system.) In 26 Jan., 2001, it launched Gyandarshan (24 hr education channel), in Nov., 2001, launched FM Radio Networks and in 2005, established 100 Edusat supported satellite Inter terminals all over the country.

All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)

New Delhi

(It is statutory body for planning and coordinated development of technical education system).

Indian Institute of Science (IISc)


Indian Institute of Information Technology Management (IIITM)


Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT)


(It has an extension campus at Amethi.)

Indian Institute of IT, Design & Manufacturing (IIITDM)


National Book Trust (NBT)

New Delhi

(An autonomous body under HRD). Every alternate year it organizes the World Book Fair in New Delhi (largest book fair in Asia and Africa).





GDP at current prices

(at factorcost) (Rs. in crore)

Total Expenditure on Education by Education &

Other Departments (Rs. in crore)



States + Centre

States as %age of GDP

Centre as %age of GDP

(States + Centre) as %age of GDP









































































P= Provisional estimates RE = Revised Estimates BE = Budget Estimates Note:-

1. GDP figures are on the base year 1999-00 series.

2. GDP figures are taken from National Accounts Statistics 2009 published by Central Statistical      Organization (CSO).

3. Other Departments include Departments / Ministries such as Agriculture, Health & Family Welfare, Labour & Employment, Science & technology, Tribal Affairs, Post & Telegraphs, Home Affairs, Commerce, Railways, Defence, etc.

Source: MHRD, D/o Higher Education, Planning, Monitoring and Statistics Bureau, 2008-09.

  • Before 1976, education, was the exclusive responsibility of the states. The constitutional amendment act of 1976 included education en Concurrent list and Union Govt. accepted the responsibility of reinforcing the national and integrated character of education, maintaining quality and standard and monitoring of the educational requirements.

  • The National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986 and the Programme of Action (POA), 1986 as updated in 1922,   envisages a National System of education.

  • The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE), established in 1920 but dissolved in 1923 due to economy measure followed by a revival in 1935 and continued to exist till March 1994, the highest advisory body to advise the Central and State Governments in the field of education. CABE has been again reconstituted in July 2004 and its first meeting was held on 10-11th Aug., 04 which resulted in creation of seven CABE Committees in Sept., 2004 to examine: (i) Free and Compulsory Education Bill and other issues related to Elementary Education, (ii) Girls   Education, and the Common School System,  (iii) Universalisation of Secondary Education, (iv) Autonomy of Higher Education Institutions, (v) Integration of Culture Education in the School Curriculum, (vi) Regulatory Mechanism for the Text Books and parallel text books taught in schools outside the Government system and (vii) Financing of Higher and Technical Education. The reports of these Committees were discussed in the 53rd Meeting of the CABE (14-15th July, 05, New Delhi) and has been decided to constitute three Standing Committees of the CABE, for (i) Inclusive Education for Children and Youth, (ii) Literacy and Adult Education and (iii) integration and coordination of efforts for children’s development. On the recommendations made by the CABE, in    its meeting (6-7th Sept., 05) a monitoring committee has been set up to oversee the preparation of syllabus for the textbooks by NCERT. In order to facilitate donations including smaller amounts from India and abroad for implementing projects / programmes connected with the education  sector, the Government has constituted “Bharat Shiksha Kosh” as a Society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860, launched officially on 9 January, 2003 during the celebrations of Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas.


Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a national flagship programme launched in 2001, being implemented in all districts with the aim as follows: (i) All  6–14  age children in school / EGS (Education Guarantee Scheme) centre / Bridge Course by 2005, (ii) Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010, (iii) Universal retention by 2010 and (iv) Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life. The assistance was on a 85:15 sharing basis during the Ninth Plan, 75:25 sharing basis during the Tenth Plan, and 50:50 sharing thereafter between the Central Government and the State Government except for 8 NE stages, where 15% of the assistance is met by Ministry for the two years 2005-06 and 2006-07.


The Scheme envisages that child-wise planning is undertaken to bring out-of-school children in the fold of Elementary Education. EGS addresses the inaccessible habitation where there is no formal school within the radius of one km and atleast 15 – 25 children of 6 – 14 years age group who are not going to school are available. In exceptional cases remote habitations in hilly areas even for 10 children an EGS school can be opened. Where as alternative and innovative education addresses for very deprived children like child labour, migrating children, street children in the age group of +9.


National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) was launched as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme on 15th August, 1995, By the year 1997-98 the NP-NSPE was introduced in all blocks of the country followed by extension in 2002 and revisions in Sept, 2004 and July, 2006.

  • In September 2007, the name of the Scheme was changed from ‘National Programme of Nutritional Support’ to Primary Education to ‘National Programme of Mid Day Meal in Schools’ and the scheme was extended to cover       children of upper primary classes.

  • The Scheme was further revised in April 2008 to cover all upper primary schools of country and also to include   recognized Madrasas / Maqtabs supported under SSA as Government Aided schools as well as those Madrasas / Maqtabs which may not be registered or recognized but supported under SSA as EGS / AIE intervention in coordination with State Project Directors of SSA.

  • The Scheme was again revised in November 2009.

  • The National Programme of Mid-Day Meal in Schools (NP-MDMS) presently covers all children studying in Classes – I – VIII in Government, Government Aided and Local Body Schools, Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) and Alternative and Innovative Education (AIE) centres including Madrasas and Maqtabs supported under SSA.

The objectives of the mid-day meal scheme are:

(i) Improving the nutritional status of children in classes I – V in Government, Local Body and Government Aided   schools, and EGS and AIE centres.

(ii) Encouraging poor children, belonging to disadvantaged sections, to attend school more regularly and help them concentrate on classroom activities.

(iii) Providing nutritional support to children of primary stage in drought affected areas during summer vacation.



Norm as per NP-NSPE, 2004

Revised norms as per NP-NSPE, 2006








Not Prescribed

Adequate quantities of micronutrients like iron, folic acid, vitamin-A etc.

To achieve the above objectives a cooked mid day meal with nutritional content as shown in column 3 of the table below will be provided to all children studying in classes I-V.


The Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of Human Resources Development has prescribed the monitoring mechanism includes the following:

Arrangements for local level monitoring Representatives of Gram Panchayats / Gram Sabhas, members of VECs, PTAs, SDMCs as well as Mothers’ Committees are required to monitor the (i) regularity and wholesomeness of the mid day meal served to children, (ii) cleanliness in cooking and serving of the mid day meal, (iii) timeliness in procurement of good quality ingredients, fuel, etc. (iv) implementation of varied menu, (v) social and gender equity. This is required to be done on a daily basis.

  • Display of Information under Right to Information Act: In order to ensure that there is transparency and accountability, all schools and centres where the programme is being implemented are required to display information suo-moto which includes (i) Quality of foodgrains received, date of receipt, (ii) Quantity of foodgrains utilized, (iii) Other ingredients purchased, utilized, (iv) Number of children given mid day meal, (v) Daily Menu and (vi) Roster of Community Members involved in the programme.

  • Inspections by State Government Officers: Officers of the State Government /UTs belonging to the Departments of Revenue, Rural Development, Education and other related sectors, are also required to inspect schools and centres where the programme is being implemented with the recommendation of that 25% of primary schools / EGS and AIE centres are visited every quarter.

  • Responsibility of Food Corporation of India (FCI): The FCI is responsible for the continuous availability of adequate food grains, which should of at least fair average quality, by storing it in one month advance in its Depots (and in Principal Distribution Centres in the case of North East Region). The FCI appoints a Nodal Officer for each State to handle issues related with the items in supply of food grains.


The State Government / UT is required to submit periodic returns to the Department of School Education and Literacy, to provide information on: (i) coverage of children and institutions; (ii) Progress in utilization of Central assistance, including cooking costs, transportation, construction of kitchen sheds and procurement of kitchen devices.

  • Monitoring by Institutions of Social Science Research: Forty One Institutions of Social Science Research, identified for monitoring the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, are also entrusted with the task of monitoring the Mid Day   Scheme.

  • Grievance Redressal: States and Union Territories are required to develop a dedicated mechanism for public grievance redressal, which should be widely publicized and made easily accessible.


District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was launched in 1994 as a major initiative to revitalize the primary education system and to achieve the objective of universalization of primary education. Under the Programme parameters, investment per district is limited to Rs. 40 crore over a project period of 5 – 7 years. There is a ceiling of 33.3 per cent on civil works component and 6 per cent on management cost. The remaining amount is required to be spent on quality improvement activities. DPEP is an externally aided project. 85 per cent of the project cost is met by the Central Government which is resourced through external assistance and the remaining 15 per cent is shared by the concerned State Government.


Mahila Samakhya Scheme, started in 1989, for the education and empowerment of women in rural areas particularly those from socially and economically marginalized groups. The Mahila Samakhya Scheme is implemented in nine States viz., Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal which extended to Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh later.


Centrally sponsored scheme of Teacher Education was launched in 1987-88 with following objective:

1. Establishment of District Institute of Education & Training (DIETs) by upgradation of existing Elementary Teacher Education Institutions (ETEIs) wherever possible, and establishment of new DIET where necessary.

2. Upgradation of selected Secondary Teacher Education Institutions (STETIs) into Colleges and Teacher Education (CTEs) & Institutes of Advanced Study in Education (IASEs), and

3. Strengthening of State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERTs).

The Scheme was revised in 2003 and the revised guidelines were issued in January, 2004, with the following objective:

1. Speedy completion of DIET/CTE/IASE/SCERT projects sanctioned but not completed up to the end of the IX Plan period.

2. Making DIETs, IASEs sanctioned (and SCERTs strengthened) upto the IX Plan period, optimum functional and operation.

3. Sanction and implementation of fresh DIET/CTE/IASE/SCERT projects to the extent necessary.

4. Improvement in the quality of programmes to be undertaken by DIETs.

Criteria for setting up of DIETs/District Resource Centre (DRC) are:

1. One DIET for each district having a minimum of 2,500 teachers. If there is an existing Government ETEI in the district, it would be upgraded into a DIET. If no Government ETEI exists in the district, a new institution (DIET) will be established.

2. District Resource Centres in districts with less than 2,500 teachers. If a Government ETEI exists in the district, it would be upgraded into a DRC otherwise, a new DRC would be established in which case it would not conduct pre-service course.

3. If in a district with more than 2,500 teachers, State Government wishes to establish a DRC in preference to a DIET, it would be able to do so.

In order to make proposals for the 11th Plan for Teacher Education, a sub-group under the chairmanship of Director, NCERT was set-up. Based on the recommendations of the sub-group, in addition to strengthening the existing provisions of the scheme, certain new schemes are proposed to be incorporated during 11th Plan.

(a) Augmenting teacher education capacity in SC/ST and minority areas (Block Institutes of Teacher Education).

(b) Professional Development of in-service Elementary and Secondary Teachers.

(i) Training of untrained teachers and para-teachers.

(ii) In-service training and subject knowledge upgradation of practicing teachers.

(c) Professional development of teacher educators through refresher course and fellowship programme.

(d) Support to NGOs.

(e) Special programme for North-East.

(f) Technology in Teacher Education.

(g) Integrating Elementary Teacher Education with Higher Education.








  • To provide universal elementary education
  • Universal access and retention
  • Bridging of gender and social category gaps in EE
  • Significant enhancement in learning levels of children

  • Universal
  • Targets geographical areas in districts and blocks with predominance of SC, ST, OBC and Minority population (441 districts).



  • Improving the nutritional status of children in classes I – VIII
  • Encouraging poor children, belonging to disadvantaged sections, to attend schools more regularly and help them concentrate on classroom activities.
  • Covers Government, local body and Government aided schools and EGS/ATE centres throughout the country.


Teacher Education

  • To create a sound institutional infrastructure for pre-service and in-service training of teachers
  • To provide academic resource support to elementary and secondary schools.
  • Almost Universal.


Mahila Samakhya

  • To enhance the self image and self confidence of women
  • To create an environment where women can seek knowledge and information which empowers them to play a positive role in society.
  • Ten States viz. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal.


(i) Scheme for Providing Quality Education in Madarsas (SPQEM) and

(ii) Scheme for Infrastructure Development in Minority Institutions / Schools (IDMI)

  • To bring about qualitative improvement in Madarsas and to introduce science, mathematics, social studies, Hindi and English in the curriculum
  • To augment infrastructure in private aided / unaided minority schools / institutions to enhance quality of education

  • The schemes will  cover the entire country but it is voluntary for minority institutions to seek central assistance.


Set up in 1929, the second oldest Board of the country, CBSE is an autonomous body working under the aegis of the ministry of HRD.


The National Bal Bhavan, 1956, is an autonomous body fully funded by the Ministry of Human Resources

Development. Department of School Education and Literacy through affiliated Bal Bhavans and Bal Kendras, National Bal Bhavan reaches out to school dropouts, children of socially and economically backward class, street children and also the special children. It has National Training Resource Centre (NTRC) within its premises which imparts training to teachers on diverse activities.

It has launched ‘The Bal Shree Scheme’ in 1995 to identify, honour and nurture the creative children (age 9-16) of India in four identified areas of creative art, creative performance, creative scientific innovations and creating writing and they receive this honour from the President of India at a glittering function organized at the Rashtrapati Bhavan.


The National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) was established in August 1995 with the aim to achieve planned and co-ordinated development of teacher education system throughout the country and for regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards of teacher education. It has 4 regional committees of the council at Jaipur, Bangalore, Bhubandwar and Bhopal looking after recognition of teacher training in situation and are empowered to grant permission for teacher training course as per National Council for Teacher Education act. The NCTE revised its existing regulations and norms and standards and notified NCTE (Recognition norms and Procedures) 2009.


The Constitution (86th Amendment) Act, 2002, enacted in December 2002 seeks to make free and compulsory education a Fundamental Right for all children in the age – group 6 – 14 years by inserting a new Article 21-A in Part III (“Fundamental Right”) of the Constitution. Article 21A of the Constitution says:

“The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.”

It was passed by Parliament on 4th August, 2009 and the RTE was published in the Gazette of India on 27th August, 2009.


A two per cent Education Cess was levied on all major Central taxes through the Finance (No. 2) Act, 2004, to help Finance Government’s commitment to quality basic education. In order to receive the proceeds of this Education Cess, the creation of a dedicated, non-lapsable fund called Prarambhik Shiksha Kosh (PSK) in the Public Account was approved by Government on 6th Oct., 05 but formally issued on 14th Nov., 05. After presentation of the Union Budget (06-07) on 28th Feb, 06 PSK became a separate line item. The funds available in the PSK were utilized exclusively for Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and National Programme for Nutritional Support of Primary Education.


The National Literacy Mission, set up in May 1988, aims to attain a sustainable threshold level of 75 per cent literacy by imparting functional literacy to non-literates in the age group of 15 – 35 years, by 2007. The Total Literacy Campaigns, the principal strategy of NLM for eradication of illiteracy, are implemented through Zilla Saksharata Samitis (district level literacy committees) as independent and autonomous-bodies, having due representation of all sections of society. The National Literacy Mission aims at ensuring that the Total Literacy Campaigns and the Post-literacy Programmes successfully move on to Continuing Education. The Continuing Education Scheme provides a learning continuum to the efforts of Total Literacy and Post Literacy Programmes. The main thrust is on providing further learning opportunities to neo-literates by setting up of Continuing Education Centres (CECs) Special interventions for Female literacy: As per Census, 2001, 47 districts in the country have a female literacy rate below 30 per cent. As most of these districts are concentrated in the States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha and Jharkhand, special innovative programmes have been taken up in these districts for promoting female literacy. The programme in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar has been completed and externally evaluated. Projects for Residual Illiteracy: Projects for Residual Illiteracy (PRI) have been taken up in 9 Districts of Rajasthan, 10 districts of Andhra Pradesh, 7 districts of Bihar, 14 districts of Karnataka, 12 districts of Madhya Pradesh, 3 districts of Tripura, 3 districts of Jharkhand and 18 districts of Uttar Pradesh, 4 districts of Mizoram, and West Bengal.

  • Special Literacy Drive: The Council of the NLMA in its meeting held in April 2005 identified 150 districts which have the lowest literacy rates for launching a special literacy drive, with special focus on the minority groups, persons belonging to scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, women and other backward sections of the society.

  • Jan Shikshan Sansthan: The Objective of the Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSS) is educational, vocational and occupational development of the socio-economically backward and educationally disadvantaged group of urban/rural population.

SGH members trained by Jan Shikshan Sansthan in Sivakasi opened basic electronics unit for repair and maintenance of domestic appliances.

  • Directorate of Adult Education: The Central Directorate of Adult Education provides academic and technical resource support to National Literacy Mission. NLM-UNESCO Awards are given every year to the selected State Resource Centre, Jan Shikshan Sansthan and University, Department of Adult, Continuing Education and Extension for their outstanding work done in the field of adult and literacy programmes. The award winners were:

(i) State Resource Centre, Kolkata

(ii) Jan Shikshan Sansthan, Aurangabad and

(iii) Department of Continuing Education & Extension, S.V. University, Tirupati.

  • Satyen Maitra Memorial Award is given every year to selected TLC/PLP/CE districts for their best performing and significant achievements in literacy progammes.

  • UNESCO’s Confucious Prize for Literacy. The award carries a cash award of US $ 20,000 and a citation.


393 Total Literacy Campaign districts and 172 Post Literacy Programme districts have been evaluated by the External Evaluation Agencies. Seven Continuing Education Programmes districts, i.e., Mandi (Himachal Pradesh), Ajmer (Rajasthan), Idduki Kasargod and Kollam and (Kerala) Uttar Kammad and Davangere (Karnataka) have also been evaluated by external evaluation agencies. Similarly, the activities of 106 JSSs have also been evaluated.

1. The literacy rate in 2001 has been recorded at 64.84 per cent as against 52.21 per cent in 1991. The 12.63 percentage points increase in the literacy rate during the period is the highest increase in any decade.

2. Rate of growth in literacy is more in rural areas than in urban areas.

3. The gap in male-female literacy rate has decreased from 24.84 per cent in 1991 to 21.60 per cent in 2001.

4. Female literacy increased by 14.38 per cent whereas male literacy increased by 11.13 per cent during the last decade.

5. Gender equity and women’s empowerment is also visible as about 60 per cent of participants and beneficiaries are women.

6. In all states and union territories, the male literacy rate is now over 60 per cent. Kerala continues to have the highest literacy rate of 90.92 per cent and Bihar has the lowest literacy rate of 47.53 per cent.

7. Out of the total 600 districts in the country, 597 districts have been covered by NLM under literacy programme.


Article 46 of the Constitution states that, “The State shall promote, with special care, the education and economic interests of the weaker sections of the society, and, in particular of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of social exploitation”. Articles 330, 332, 335, 338 to 342 and the entire Fifth and Sixth Schedules of the Constitution deal with special provisions for implementation of the objectives set forth in Article 46.

  • National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL): The NPEGEL under the existing scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) provides additional components for education of girls under privileged / disadvantaged at the elementary level. The Scheme is being implemented in Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs) where the level of rural female literacy is less than the national average and the gender gap is above the national average, as well as in blocks of districts that have at least 5 per cent SC/ST population and where SC/ST female literacy is below 10 per cent based on 1991.

  • Shiksha Karmi Project (SKP): SKP aims at universalization and qualitative improvement of primary education in remote, arid and socio-economically backward villages in Rajasthan with primary attention to girls.

  • Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas: Under the scheme of Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya, 750 residential   schools are being set up in difficult areas with boarding facilities at elementary level for girls belonging   predominantly to the SC, ST, OBC and minorities. The scheme would be applicable only in those identified     Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs) where, as per census data 2001, the rural female literacy is below the    national average and gender gap in literacy is more than the national average.

  • Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL): The Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore has a scheme of development of Indian Languages through research, developing manpower and production of materials in  modern Indian Languages including tribal languages.

  • Scholarship Scheme for SC/ST candidates: Dr. Ambedkar National Scholarship Scheme for meritorious students, is implemented by Dr. Ambedkar Foundation set up under the aegis of the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment in 1992 with a view to recognize, promote and assist meritorious students belonging to Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe for enabling them to pursue higher studies. This is one time cash award and will be given to three students scoring highest marks in the regular class X level examination conducted by the Education Board / Council. This will be separate for SC and ST. In case none of the first three eligible students are girls, the girl students scoring the highest mark will get a special award. As and when asked by the Ministry of Social Welfare and Justice, NIOS is supposed to send the names of eligible candidates for this scheme. Under the Scheme of strengthening of Boarding and Hostel Facilities for Girl Students of Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools sent percent financial assistance is given to Voluntary Organizations to improve enrolment of adolescent girls belonging to rural areas and weaker sections.

  • National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT): NCERT operates the National Talent Search Scheme for pursuing courses in science and social science upto doctoral level and in professional courses like medicine and engineering upto second-degree level subject to fulfillment of the conditions. Out of 1000 scholarships 150 scholarships are reserved for SC students and 75 scholarships for ST students.

  • National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA): Educational development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes is an area of major concern of NIEPA. It has also been generating material relating to educational institutions and development of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe students.

  • Community Poly-technics: The Scheme of Community Polytechnics in selected diploma level institutions since 1978-79 undertakes rural / community development activities through application of science and technology in its proximity.


During the 10th Five Year Plan, “Quality Improvement in Schools” was introduced as a composite centrally sponsored scheme having the following components: (i) National Population Education Project, (ii) Environmental Orientation to School Education, (iii) Improvement of Science Education in Schools, and (iv) Introduction of Yoga in Schools and (v) International Science Olympiads. A decision was taken to transfer four of these components to National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) w.e.f. April 2006, except the component of improvement Science Education in school that was transferred to states.


The National Population Education Project was launched in April 1980 with the objective of institutionalizing population education in the school education and teacher education systems to contribute to the attainment of population and development goals of the country. Up to 2002, this was implemented as externally aided Project which was fully funded by the United Nations Population Fund (UNPFA). Moreover, UNPFA decided to support a concomitant Project focused on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health (ARSH) from 2004. During 2006-07, the NPEP was implemented as an integral part of Adolescence Education Programme, launched by Ministry of Human Resource Development in 2005 in collaboration with National AIDS Control Organization (NACO).


Centrally –sponsored Scheme “Environment Orientation to School Education’ was initiated in 1988-89. The scheme envisages assistance to voluntary agencies for conduct of experimental and innovative programme aimed at promoting integration of educational programmes in schools with local environmental conditions.


Centrally sponsored Scheme “Improvement of Science Education in Schools” was initiated during 1987-88. Under the scheme financial assistance was being provided to States/UTs and voluntary agencies.


Introduction of Yoga in Schools was launched as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme during 1989-90 to provide financial assistance to States/Union Territories / Non-Governmental Organizations. It aimed at giving central assistance for training and research, enrichment of library and construction / expansion of hotels for teacher trainees. It was being implemented through the concerned Departments of Education of States / UTs. It was transferred to NCERT w.e.f. April, 2007. NCERT has initiated to review the Scheme in the light of National Curriculum Framework 2005.


With an aim to identify and nurture talents in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology at School level, International Science Olympiads held every year for respective subjects and India has been participating in these Olympiads in 1989, 1998, 1999 and 2000, respectively. Since 2002, Indian team is also participating in international Olympiad in informatics.

As per the existing financial pattern, the host country ray for the boarding and lodging and transportation of teams during their stay in the next country, while the International travel cost is borne by the participating countries.


The National Policy on Education: 1986 envisaged setting up of model school, one in each district of the Country. Accordingly, a scheme was formulated under which it was decided to set-up co-educational fully residential schools (now called Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas) providing education up to senior secondary level. Efforts are made to ensure that at least 33 per cent of the students enrolled are girls. Migration is a unique feature of Navodaya Vidyalaya Scheme whereby 30 percent of students of Class IX from a Vidyalaya located in Hindi speaking area spend one academic year in a Vidyalaya located in Non-Hindi speaking area and vice-versa to promote national integration.


The Government approved the scheme of Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan in 1962, on the recommendations of the Second Pay Commission. Initially, 20 regimental schools in different States were taken over as Central Schools. In 1965, an Autonomous Body called Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan was established with the primary objective of setting-up and monitoring Kendriya Vidylayas to cater to the educational needs of the children of transferable Central Government Employees including Defence Personnel and Para-Military forces by providing common progaramme of education. Three Kendriya Vidyalayas are based abroad, i.e., one each in Kathmandu, Moscow and Tehran.


The Centrally sponsored scheme of Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) was launched in 1974 by the then Department of Social Welfare and was later transferred to the Department of Education in 1982-83. The Scheme was last revised in 1992. This Scheme provides educational opportunities for disabled children in common schools to facilitate their integration and ultimate retention in the general school system. Under IEDX, 100 per cent assistance is being provided to various components for education of children suffering from mid to moderate disabilities in common schools.


The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is an apex institution which provides technical resource support for school education. The NCERT charter envisages a special place for designing curriculum. NCERT is expected to review school curriculum as a regular activity ensuring the higher standards in education. The National Policy of Education, (NPE) 1986, and the Programme of Action (PoA), 1992 assign a special role of NCERT in preparing and promoting a National Curriculum Framework.

National Curriculum Framework: The National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 was the outcome of wide ranging deliberations and collective endeavours. A National Steering Committee was set up under the chairpersonship of Prof. Yash Pal (Scientist and Scholar). The committee comprised 35 members including scholars from different disciplines, principals and teachers, representative of well known NGOs and members of the NCERT. Its work was supported by 21 National Focus Groups, covering major areas of the curriculum, national concerns and systemic issues.


  • Hindi: In order to  assist non-Hindi speaking States / UTs to effectively implement the three-language formula, support for teaching of Hindi in these States / UTs is provided by sanctioning financial assistance to appoint Hindi teachers in schools under a Centrally-sponsored scheme. Assistance is also given to Voluntary Organizations for enabling them to hold Hindi-teaching classes. Though the Kendriya Hindi Sansthan, the Government promotes development of improved methodology for teaching Hindi to non-Hindi speaking students.

  • Modern Indian Languages: The National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language (NCPUL) has been functioning since April 1996 as an autonomous body for the promotion of Urdu language and also Arabic and Persian languages. One of the outstanding areas of operation of NCPUL has been transfer to information of Urdu speaking population into productive human resource and making them part of the employable technological workforce in the emerging information technological scenario and penetration of computer education to the grass-root level in minority concentration blocks. The Government has also set-up National Council for Promotion of Sindhi.

  • English and Foreign Languages: The Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages (CIEFL), Hyderabad, an Institution of Higher learning deemed to be a University, is an autonomous organization which undertakes teacher education programme to improve the professional competence of teachers of English at the secondary language with the regional centres at Shillong and Lucknow. The CIEFL also implements two Government of India schemes of English Language Teaching Institute (ELTI) and District Centres for English to bring about substantial improvements in the standard of teaching/learning of English in the country for which grants are given by CIEFL to   various State Governments.


Central Sector Scheme of Assistance for Strengthening of Culture and Values in Education is being implemented. In which financial assistance is given to Governmental and non-Governmental organizations, Panchayat Raj Institutions, etc., to the extent of 100 per cent of grant for the project proposals approved subject to a ceiling of rupees ten lakh for strengthening cultural and value education from pre-primary education system to higher education including technical and management education.


The Government of India gives 100 per cent financial assistance through State Governments for: (a) Eminent Sanskrit scholars in Indigent Circumstances; (b) Modernization of Sanskrit Pathshalas; (c) Providing facilities for teaching Sanskrit in High / Higher Secondary Schools; (d) Scholarships to students studying Sanskrit in High and Higher Secondary schools; (e) Various schemes for the promotion of Sanskrit; and (f) improving the methodology of teaching Sanskrit in schools, Sanskrit Colleges / Vidyapeeths. Presently the Scheme is under revision. Presidential Award of the Certificate of Honour is conferred on eminent scholars of Sanskrit, Pali, Arabic, and Persian in recognition of their lifetime outstanding contribution towards the propagation of these languages, every year on Independence Day. Maharshi Badrayan Vyas Samman has also been introduced for young scholars in the age group of 30 – 40 years who have made a break through in inter disciplinary studies involving contribution of Sanskrit or ancient Indian wisdom, to the process of synergy between modernity and tradition.

  • Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan New Delhi: Is an autonomous organization established by the Government of  India in the year 1970. It is the nodal agency for the propagation, promotion and development of Sanskrit Education in the country. It is fully funded by the Government of India in the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Secondary and Higher Education. Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan has been granted the status of a Deemed to University. Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati, provide courses of study from Prashasti (Intermediate) to Vidya Vardhi (Ph.D.), The Vidyapeetha has upgraded the Department of Pedagogy to an Institute of Advanced Studies in Education (IASE).

  • Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, New Delhi: provides courses of study from Shastri to Vidya Vachaspati (D.Lit.). From 1997-98 the Vidyapeetha started diploma in vedic and refresher courses, two degrees, namely, Vidya Vardhi (Ph.D.) and Manad Upaadhi (Honorary D. Lit.) are also given by Vidyapeetha.


The Ministry of Human Resource Development operates a Centrally Sponsored Plan Scheme viz., National Merit Scholarship Scheme through States / UTs, under which 100 per cent financial assistance is provided to meritorious students from rural areas studying in classes IX and X. Besides, scholarship is also provided to all the meritorious students on state-wise merit, including students from rural areas, studying from the post-metric to the post-graduate level.


The North Eastern Region comprising eight States has a high literacy level and is rich in ethnic cultural heritage with linguistic diversity. The NE States have been provided grants under the Non-Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR) to improve their infrastructure facilities. The Empowered Committee administering NLCPR has, since its inception in 1998-99.


The University Grants Commission (UGC) which came into existence on 28 December, 1953, became a statutory organization by an Act of Parliament in 1956. It is a national body for the coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education. Section 12 of the UGC Act provide that the Commission shall, in consultation with the universities concerned, take all such steps as it may think fit for the promotion and coordination of university education  and for the maintenance of standards in teaching, examination and research. For the purpose of performing its functions, the Commission may allocate and disburse, out of the Fund of the Commission, grants to universities and colleges for their maintenance and development; advise the Union Government, State Governments and Institutions of higher learning on the measures necessary for the promotion of university education and make Rules and Regulations consistent with the Act, etc. The Commission consists of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and 10 other members appointed by the Government of India. The executive head is Secretary. The University Grants Commission has its Regional Offices at Hyderabad, Pune, Bangalore, Kolkata, Guwahati and Bangalore. The Northern Regional Office which was earlier located at Ghaziabad has now been functioning from the UGC Head Quarters as Northern Regional Colleges Bureau (NRCB).


  • The Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR), New Delhi, set-up in 1972, reviews the progress of historical research and encourages scientific writing of history.
  • The Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR), functioning from 1977 with offices in New Delhi and Lucknow, reviews the progress, sponsors or assists projects and programmes of research in philosophy.
  • The Indian Institute of Advanced Study (IIAS), Shimla set up in 1965 is a residential centre for advanced research in humanities, social sciences and natural sciences.
  • The Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR), New Delhi, is an autonomous body for promoting and coordinating social science research.
  • The National Council of Rural Institute (NCRI) was set up in 1995 as an autonomous Organization fully funded by the Central Government to promote rural higher education on the lines of Mahatma Gandhi’s revolutionary and voluntary agencies in accordance with Gandhian Philosophy of education.


The Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) established in September 1985 is responsible for the promotion of Open University and distance education system in the educational pattern of the country and for coordination and determination of standards in such systems. The IGNOU introduced its programmes in 1987. On 26 January, 2001, IGNOU launched an education channel Gyandarshan which is now a 24-hour channel and has capacity of six simultaneous telecasts. In November 2001, IGNOU launched FM Radio Network for providing additional student support. The launch of an exclusive educational satellite Edusat is an historic opportunity. In the year 2005, the university established 100 Edusat supported Satellite Interactive Terminals (SITs) in its regional / study centres all over the country. Distance Education Council, established by the University as a statutory authority, is an apex body.


  • In pursuance of the revised Programme of Action (POA) 1992, two new Centrally-sponsored schemes, i.e., (i) Scheme of Area Intensive Programme for Educationally Backward Minorities; and (ii) Scheme of Financial Assistance for Modernization of Madarsa Education were launched during 1993-04. In the Tenth Plan the aforesaid two schemes have been merged to form the Area Intensive and Madarsa Modernization Programme.

  • The National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions 2004 has been set-up an Act of Parliament under which minority education institutions can seek affiliation to Scheduled Universities. University of Delhi, North Eastern Hill University; Pondicherry University; Assam University; Nagaland University and Mizoram University are at present in the Schedule.


India has been a member of the United Nations’ Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) since 1946. The Government set up an interim Indian National Commission for Co-operation with UNESCO (INCCU) in 1949, which was later put on a permanent footing in 1951. The Commission consists of five Sub-Commissions namely, Education, Natural Science, Social Sciences, Culture and Communication. The Minister for Human Resource Development is the President of the Commission and the Secretary of the Government of India in the Department of Secondary and Higher Education is its Secretary General. The membership of the Commission is of two categories: (i) Individual and (ii) institutional members distributed among its five Sub-Commissions.

The National Commission acts as an advisory, coordinating and liaison agency at the national level in respect of all matters within the competence of UNESCO.

National Book Trust, India: The National Book Trust, India an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Human Resource Development, was established in 1957. Every alternate year, NBT organizes the World Book Fair in New Delhi, which is the largest book fair in Asia and Africa. The Trust also observes 14-20 November every year as National Book Week.


Launched in March, 2009, this Scheme with the objective to enhance access to secondary education and improve its quality, envisages to achieve an enrolment rate of 75 per cent from 52.26 per cent in 2005-06 in secondary stage within five years by providing a secondary school within a reasonable distance of any habitation, providing universal access to secondary level education by 2017 and achieving universal retention by 2020.

The Information and Communication Technology @ School Scheme was launched in December 2004 to provide opportunities to secondary stage students to mainly build their capacity of ICT skills and make them learn through computer aided learning process. Based on experience gained, so far, the Scheme has been revised with the approval of CCEA on 9 January, 2010 during the 11th Plan.

The elements of the revised proposal are to increase outreach to all government and government aided secondary and higher secondary schools, strengthen teacher, provision of broadband connectivity and e-content development.

The Scheme of Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary State (IEDSS) has been lunched from the year 2009-10. This Scheme replaces the earlier scheme of Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) and would provide assistance for the inclusive education of the disabled children in classes IX-XII.


Administering the Copyright Act, 1957, in the area of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs), is the responsibility of the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Secondary and Higher Education. The Copyright Office was established in January, 1958 to register copyright of works under different categories. As per Section 33 of the Copyright Act, the Central Government also registers copyright societies for doing copyright business. The Indian Copyright Act, 1957 was comprehensively amended in 1994 taking into account the technological developments. The amended Act was brought into force on 10 May, 1995. The Act as further amended in 1999, came into force on 15 January, 2000. Under the provisions of Section 11 of the Copyright Act, 1957, the Government of India has constituted a Board to be called the Copyright Board. The Copyright Board is a quasi-judicial body consisting of a Chairman and not less than two or more than fourteen other members. The Chairman and other members of the Board are appointed for a term of five years.

  • Copyright Enforcement in India: The Indian Copyright Act, 1957, provides penalties for the offences committed under the Copyright Act and empowers the police to take necessary action. The actual enforcement of the law is the concern of the State Governments. These measures include the setting up of a Copyright Enforcement Advisory Council (CEAC), which has as its members from all concerned departments and representatives of industry to regularly review the implementation of the Copyright Act including the provisions regarding anti-piracy.

  • Cooperation with WIPO: India is a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), a specialized  agency of the United Nations which deals with copyright and other intellectual property rights. As per recent amendments in the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961 the work relating to coordination with WIPO has been transferred to Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion.

  • General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS): Education is one of the twelve services, which are to be negotiated under the General Agreement of Trade in Services (GATS). Education has been divided into five categories for the purposes of Negotiations: Higher Education, Secondary Education, Primary Education, Adult Education and Other Education.


  • 1792     : Sanskrit College at Banaras

  • 1800     : Fort William College at Kolkata

  • 1817     : January 20 – Raja Rammohan Roy established the Hindu College, in Kolkata (renamed Presidency College in 1855).

  • 1821     : Poona Sanskrit College

  • 1824     : Sanskrit College at Kolkata

  • 1826     : Governor of Madras established two schools in each collectorate and one school in each Tahsil.

  • 1834     : Basel Mission at Mangalore.

  • 1835     : February 2 – Macaulay’s minute, in which he anticipated’ a class of persons, Indian in blood and  color, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect.

  • 1835     : Calcutta Medical College, the first Medical College in India (also in Asia).

  • 1844     : Lord Harding established 101 vernacular’ schools in Bengal. 

  • 1847     : Roorkee Engineering College, the first Engineering College in India.

  • 1854     : ‘Wood’s Despatch’ – survey and suggestions for reforms; creation of Department of Public Instruction in each province.

  • 1857     : Hunter Commission on education (responsibility of mass education shifted from Government to local boards / private sectors; grant in aid system).

  • 1882     : Punjab University

  • 1904     : Five Universities, 191 affiliated colleges; 23,000 students; 5,498 secondary schools with 5.6 lakh students 98,538 primary schools with 33 lakh students; special industrial / technical / art / training schools.

  • 1948     : Radhakrishan Commission for university education – suggested 10+2 structure, three languages, scholarships and research.

  • 1950     : Free and compulsory education enshrined as one of the Directive Principles of State Policy in the Constitution of the Indian Republic.

  • 1951     : First Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) established at Kharagpur.

  • 1952     : Mudaliar Commission Secondary Education.

  • 1956     : University Grants Commission (UGC) established by Act of Parliament.

  • 1961     : Dr. Sampuranan and Committee on Emotional Integration.

  • 1964     : Kothari Commission on education at all stages.

  • 1976     : Education changed from State list to Concurrent List in the Constitution.

  • 1986     : New National Policy of Education.

  • 1988     : All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) with statutory status; National Literacy Mission launched.

  • 1993     : National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE).

  • 2002     : Constitution amended to make free and compulsion education, a Fundamental Right.

  • 2004     : EDUSAT, a satellite dedicated to education launched.

  • 2008     : Decision to set up eight new IIT’s.
Last Updated on Monday, 23 April 2012 08:51