Home General Knowledge GENERAL KNOWLEDGE BOOSTER : Diabetes mellitus(diabetes)
GENERAL KNOWLEDGE BOOSTER : Diabetes mellitus(diabetes)
Monday, 02 March 2015 06:56




Diabetes mellitus(diabetes)


Diabetes mellitus, noted as Diabetes or more commonly known as Sugar, is a group of various metabolic( biological and chemical reactions happens all the time to keep the cell alive) diseases in which a person has high blood sugar.

High blood Sugar

Blood has Glucose, the higher levels of glucose in the blood is called high blood sugar, scientifically called Hyperglycemia.

Glucose level higher than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) will cause hyperglycemia, but symptoms of diabetes will be noticeable only when the levels crosses 15–20  mmol/l (~250–300 mg/dl).

Confused of units??

  • mmol/l means millimoles per litre, simply molecular concentration. US will represent with another unit mg/dL means milligrams perdecilitre.
  • Relation of two units..
  • Molecular weight of glucose C6H12O6 is about 180 g/mol, therefore the difference between the two scales is a factor of 18, so that 1 mmol/L of glucose is equivalent to 18 mg/dL.
  • Therefore 11.1 *18 = 199.8.

Why sugar levels increase??

There might be two reasons for this malfunction

  1. Pancreas does not produce enough insulin.
  2. Cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.

Pancreas has two functions: Endocrine and Exocrine

Symptoms of Diabetes

  • Frequent Urination ( Polyuria)
  • Feeling Thirst ( Polydipsia)
  • Feeling Hunger ( Polyphagia)

Types of Diabetes

Three main types of diabetes mellitus

  • Type 1 DM results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and currently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This form was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”.
  • Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. This form was previously referred to as “non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”.
  • Gestational diabetes, occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may lead to the development of type 2 DM.

Other forms of diabetes mellitus include Congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids(glucose + adrenal cortex + steroid), and several forms of monogenic diabetes.


Acute complications include diabetic ketoacidosis(results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies that cause most of the symptoms and complications) and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma( high blood sugars cause severe dehydration, increases in osmolarity (relative concentration of solute) and a high risk of complications, coma and death). Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular(heart) disease, chronic renal(kidney) failure, and diabetic retinopathy (retinal damage).

Adequate treatment of diabetes is thus important, as well as blood pressure control and lifestyle factors such as stopping smoking and maintaining a healthy body weight.


All forms of diabetes have been treatable since insulin became available in 1921, and type 2 diabetes may be controlled with medications.

Insulin and some oral medications can cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugars), which can be dangerous if severe.

Both types 1 and 2 are chronic conditions that cannot be cured.

  1. Pancreas transplants have been tried with limited success in type 1 DM;
  2. Gastric bypass surgery has been successful in many with morbid obesity and type 2 DM.
  3. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after delivery.




Last Updated on Monday, 02 March 2015 07:07