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Saturday, 12 July 2014 10:47



Reproduction in Organism

Reproduction: Reproduction is defined as the biological process in which an organism gives rise to young ones of its own kind.

Clone: Clone is a group of individuals of the same species that are morphologically and genetically similar.

Vegetative Reproduction: It is the process of formation or regeneration of new plants from a portion of a vegetative part of the plant.

Propagules: Those structures which are used to raise new plants, are called propagules.

Juvenile Phase: Juvenile phase represents the period of growth of an organism from birth upto reaching reproductive maturity.

Gametogenesis: Gametogenesis is the process by which gametes are formed in an organism.

Monoecious: It is the condition in which male and female reproductive organs are found in the same body of an organism.

Dioecious: It is the condition in which either male or female reproductive organs are found in the body of an individual organism.

Hermaphrodites: Hermaphrodite are those organism which have both male and female reproductive organs in the same individual; they are also called as bisexual.

Meiocyte: The call which undergoes meiosis is called the meiocyte.

Syngamy: Syngamy refers to the fusion of two (a male and a female) gametes.

Fertilization: Fertilization refers to all those events that ultimately lead to syngamy, the fusion of gametes.

Embryogenesis: Embryogenesis is the process of development of embryo from the zygote.


Health: Health is defined as a state of complete Physical, mental and social well-being.

Disease: Disease is the condition when the functioning of one or more organs or systems of the body are adversely affected and characterized by various symptoms.

Pathogens: Pathogens are those organisms which cause diseases.

Vectors: Vectors are those organisms which spread the pathogens.

Incubation Period: The time period between infection and the appearance of symptoms, is called incubation period.

Immunity: Immunity refers to the overall ability of a living body to fight against diseases.

Interferons: Interferons are the glycoproteins produced by our body cells in response to a viral infection.

Antigens: Antigens are the large and complex foreign molecules that activate the specific immune system to generate antibodies.

Antibodies: Antibodies are the protein molecules produce in response to the antigens.

Vaccination: Vaccination is the process of introducing a preparation of antigenic proteins of pathogens or killed or inactivated pathogens into the body, to generate the immune response.

Allergy: Allergy refers to the hypersensitive response of the immune system to certain antigens in the environment.

Cancer: Cancer refers to the uncontrolled proliferation of cells, that results from the breakdown of regulatory mechanisms which govern the normal cell behavior.

Metastasis: Metastasis is the phenomenon in which cancer cells spread to different sites through the body fluids and develop secondary tumours.

Tumours: Tumours are the masses of cells produced by the uncontrolled proliferation of cancerous cells.

Retroviruses: Retroviruses are those viruses which have RNA as the genetic material but can synthesise DNA  on RNA-template by reverse transcription.

Drug Abuse: When drugs are taken for a purpose other than their normal clinical use and in amount or frequency that impair one’s physical, physiological and psychological functions, it constitutes drug abuse.

Adolescence: Adolescence refers to the period and process of rapid growth and physical and mental development (attitudes and beliefs) from childhood to adulthood.

Addiction: Addiction refers to the physical and psychological attachment or dependence to certain effects of the drugs and alcohol.

Syndrome: Syndrome refers to a group of symptoms.

Withdrawal Syndrome: Withdrawal syndrome refers to the characteristic unpleasant symptoms manifested by the body of a drug addict, if regular dose of drug is abruptly discontinued.