Monday, 05 May 2014 10:01



Human waste disposal in high altitude and low temp areas, Moving Railway coaches, Buses, Big Cities, Mines, remote areas, Beaches, Rural areas, long distance buses is a huge problem. The problem has further aggravated in glaciers where ambient temperature drops to -40 degree C and lower. The low temp stops/ delays the natural bio-degradation of the waste leading to its preservation (accumulation) for long time resulting in environmental hazard. Local heating by direct sunlight exposes the waste buried in the ice causing nuisance and foul smell. The melting ice takes the waste to rivers disturbing the aquatic eco system. More over human waste is also responsible for spreading of water born diseases like typhoid, cholera, Shigellosis, Amebic Dysenteries, Diarrhea etc.

Thus a new technology “Bio-toilets” have been introduced which is suitable for any area/ application in India.

Bio-Digester Toilet is a decomposition mechanized toilet system by means of which the sludge(Human Waste), the fecal matter is decomposed to bits in the digester tank using a specific high graded bacteria further converting them into methane and water, discharged further to the desired surface. The Bio-digester toilet is total maintenance-free system & does not require any sewage system. The specific high graded bacteria involved in these bio-digester toilets carries on to further auto generation on their own because of their supreme quality. Bio-toilet technology is based on anaerobic biodegradation of organic waste by unique microbial consortium and works at a wide temperature range. The bacterial consortium degrades night soil at temp as low as -20 degree C and produces colorless, odorless and inflammable gas containing 50 – 70% methane.

This bacterial consortium has been made through acclimatization, enrichment and bio-augmentation of cold-active bacteria collected from Antarctica and the other low temperature areas.

Bio-digesters have 3 anaerobic chambers that treat Human wastes effectively, and don't require any cleaning or emptying the tank because of its unique systematic structural arrangements.

To start with the very first chamber, where in, the Human wastes arrive from the toilet's outlet, consequently the solids drop to the bottom of the tank because of the systematic structure of the bio-digester tank and the high graded pre residing bacteria (i.e. anaerobic bacteria, which can survive in the absence of oxygen) rushes for their job (i.e. eating away organic waste and decomposing entire occurring pathogens).

When this chamber is filled, the water overflows to the second chamber where more of the same happens, except at this time most of the biological/solid/sludged matter has been left in the first chamber. When the water overflows into the third chamber, it is almost 90% clean and hence the final stage of digestion takes place. The treatment, the task of cleansing water is continuously carried forward from the start to the end point, till the water exits the bio-digester. When the treated water finally comes out from the bio-digester and into our irrigation pipelines (optional if required), it is 98% clean and free from entire pathogens. This water is now safe to be used for underground irrigation via pipes buried below the surface. However, the treated water should not be used for human or animal consumption, or for household cleaning without going through additional treatment.

Salient features of bio-toilet:

a) Suitable for sub zero temperature of Himalayan Region, Glaciers, Railway coaches, Buses, Highways, Remote areas, sea ports, Mining area, metro cities etc.

b) Suitable for Mobile Toilet applications

c) 0% maintenance free, continuous biological process.

d) Complete elimination of pathogens.

e) Economically viable.

f) No dependence on the limited and costly conventional energy sources.

g) Can be installed and made operational in 12 hours only.

h) Inoculums charging is only once during the entire life of Bio Toilet.

i) No need of connectivity to the sewage line, septic tank. No disposal of sludge is required.

j) Routine cleaning chemicals like phenyl, soap, Kerosene etc. do not harm Bio Toilet or the inoculums.