Wednesday, 02 April 2014 05:57




1. In 2008, the Government launched Jan Aushadhi to sell low cost medicine. The first store for Jan Aushadhi opened in Amritsar on 25th November.

2. The Jan Aushadhi Campaign would make quality the hallmark of medicine availability in the country, by ensuring, access to quality medicines through the CPSU supplies and through GMP Compliant manufacturers in the private sector.

3. The campaign was launched with the objective to develop a model which can be replicated not only in India but also in other less developed countries in their common goal of improving quality affordable health care by improving access to quality medicines at affordable prices for al.

4. The jan aushadhi campaign is open for all. Since generic equivalents are available for all branded drugs, the campaign will provide access to any prescription drug or Over The Counter (OTC) drug for anybody. It will be as much available to the disadvantaged sections of the society as much to the advantaged richer population segment of the country.

5. This November will mark five years since Jan Aushadhi. But, its record in the last five years has not been good. About 100 outlets operate at present, while another 50 have shut shop.

6. Having learnt from its mistakes, the Government is giving the venture a fresh shot at success - as a more inclusive Jan Aushadhi (JA) format attempts to reach out to private drug-makers, civil society and consumers.

7. The venture has been sanctioned Rs 150 crore for three years by the Planning Commission.

8. The JA stores will have about 360 drugs from the National List of Essential Medicines, as compared with the earlier 102. The stores will not be housed only in Government hospitals, and medicine supplies will be sourced from public and private drug-makers.

9. Franchisees opening a JA store get a sales-linked incentive of 10 per cent of sale, every month, for the first year, among other things.

10. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or ASEAN, was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration).

11. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand are the founding members of ASEAN. Brunei Darussalam then joined on 7 January 1984, Viet Nam on 28 July 1995, Lao PDR and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999, making up what is today the ten Member States of ASEAN.

12. The motto of ASEAN is "One Vision, One Identity, One Community".

13. One of the objectives of ASEAN is to accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavours in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian Nations

14.  ASEAN-India trade grew at over 22 percent annually during the 2005-2011 period. Trade between India and ASEAN in 2011-2012 was increased by more than 37 per cent to $79 billion, which was more than the target of $70 billion set in 2009.

15. At the 10th ASEAN-India Summit in New Delhi on December 20 2012, India and ASEAN concluded negotiations for FTAs in services and investments. The two sides expect bilateral trade to increase to $100 billion by 2015, and $200 billion within a decade.

16. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in its latest report revealed that one in eight people around the world are chronically undernourished.

17. FAO, the U.N. agencies, estimated that 842 million people were suffering chronic hunger in 2011-13, or 12 per cent of the world's population, down 17 percent from 1990-92.

18. The new figure was lower than the last estimate of 868 million in 2010-12 and 1.02 billion in 2009.

19. The vast majority of people suffering hunger, or 827 million, live in developing countries, where the prevalence of undernourishment is estimated at 14.3 per cent, the report found.

20. Africa remains the region with the highest prevalence of undernourishment, with more than one in five people estimated to be undernourished, while most of the undernourished people are in southern Asia.

21. Thorium is a naturally occurring radioactive chemical element with the atomic number 90.

22. Thorium is estimated to be more abundant than uranium in the Earth's crust, and is chiefly refined from monazite sands.

23. Thorium produces a radioactive gas, radon-220, as one of its decay products. Secondary decay products of thorium include radium and actinium.

24. Thorium dioxide has the highest melting point (3300 C) of all oxides

25.       The naturally occurring isotope thorium-232 is a fertile material, and with a suitable neutron source can be used as nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors, including breeder reactors.

26.       232Th is fertile radioactive element thus it will absorb slow neutrons to produce233U, which is fissile and can be used as nuclear fuel.

27.       Thorium produces 10 to 10,000 times less long-lived radioactive waste as compared with uranium.

28.       India's three stage nuclear power programme is using thorium as a fuel in third stage.

29.       India's Kakrapar-1 reactor is the world's first reactor which uses thorium rather than depleted uranium to achieve power flattening across the reactor core.

30.       India currently envisages meeting 30% of its electricity demand through thorium-based reactors by 2050.

31.       The Rajasthani School of Painting mainly include murals and miniature that flourish during 16th and 18th century.

32.       The Rajasthani School of Painting mainly include murals and miniature that flourish during 16th and 18th century.

33.       It is influenced by Jaina and Mughal schools, contemporary literature and music.

34.       It mainly covers themes such as: Love (Radha-Krishna cult), scenes from epics, myths and legends.

35.       The miniature painting of Rajasthan is the most characteristic paintings of Rajasthan generally executed in paper, marble, ivory, wood & cloth.

36.       The most important schools related to this category are the Bundi School, the Kishangarh School, Mewar School, Amber School and the Marwar School.

37.       Rajasthani paintings in India have also beautified the walls of palaces, interior chambers of the forts, havelis and the like.

38.       Different schools of rajasthani paintings are: Bikaner School; Bundi-Kota Kalam School; Jaipur School; Marwar School and Kishengarh School.

39.       The colours were extracted from certain minerals, plant sources, conch shells, and were even derived by processing precious stones.

40.       Gold and silver are also used.

41.       Jitendra Sahoo is a famous artist of Rajput painting.

42.       A pest is any organism that spreads disease, causes destruction of food articles. Some examples of pests are mosquitoes, rodents, and weeds.

43.       "Pesticide" is a broad classification which includes insecticides (to kill insects), herbicides (to kill plants), fungicides (to kill funguses), and rodenticides (to kill rodents).

44.       Pesticides are the only man-made toxic chemicals deliberately spread over large areas.

45.       First commercial pesticide was discovered by Pierre-Marie-Alexis Millardet named as Bordeaux mixture.

46.       It kills pests but have adverse impacts on beneficial organisms too.

47.       It kills pests but have adverse impacts on beneficial organisms too.

48.       The water soluble pesticides leach away or move through runoff to rivers which leads to water pollution.

49.       It also leads to eutrophication as nutrient level of the water increases.

50.       Pesticides can have adverse affect on the nervous, endocrine, immune and reproductive systems especially to infants, young children, the unborn.

51.       Integrated Pest Management is a technique of pest control which involves natural methods to a greater extent and using pesticides to the minimum and when it is essential.

52.       Organic farming is a technique of raising crops through the use of manures, fertilizers and pesticides of organic origin.

53.       LIDAR is an acronym for 'Laser Interferometry Detection and Ranging'.

54.       It is a remote sensing technology that measures distance by illuminating a target with a laser and analyzing the reflected light.

55.       The light pulses combined with other data recorded by the airborne system generate precise, three-dimensional information about the shape of the Earth and its surface characteristics.

56.       A LIDAR instrument principally consists of a laser, a scanner, and a specialized GPS receiver.

57.       LIDAR is popularly used as a technology used to make high resolution maps, with applications in geomatics, archaeology, geography, geology, geomorphology, seismology, forestry, remote sensing.

58.       LIDAR uses ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared light to image objects and can be used with a wide range of targets, including non-metallic objects, rocks, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols, clouds and even single molecules

59.       There are two types of LIDAR- topographic and bathymetric.

60.       Topographic LIDAR typically uses a near-infrared laser to map the land, while bathymetric LIDAR uses water-penetrating green light to also measure seafloor and riverbed elevations.

61.       One of the advantages of LIDAR is that it can be operated in any weather.

62.       LIDAR also can be used to help farmers determine which areas of their fields to apply costly fertilizer or can create a topographical map of the fields and reveal the slopes and sun exposure of the farm land.

63.       The High court is the head of the judiciary in the state.

64.       Every judge of High Court is appointed by the president.

65.       The judge of a high court can hold office until the age of 62 years.

66.       Salaries and allowances of the High Court judges are charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State.

67.       The District Courts of India are established by the State governments in India for every district or for one or more districts together taking into account the number of cases, population distribution in the district.

68.       These courts are under administrative and judicial control of the High Court of the State to which the district concerned belongs.

69.       The highest court in each district is that of the District and Sessions Judge.

70.       District and session court is the principal court of civil jurisdiction. It has the power to impose any sentence including capital punishment.

71.       On criminal side the lowest court is that of the Judicial Magistrate. Judicial Magistrates decide criminal cases which are punishable with imprisonment of up to five years.

72.       The district court has appellate jurisdiction over all subordinate courts situated in the district on both civil and criminal matters.

73.       The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as existing "when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life".

74.       Food security is built on three pillars: Food Availability; Food Access and Food Use.

75.       India was ranked 65th in the global hunger index 2012 released by the International Food Policy and Research Institute.

76.       The GHI is composed of three equally weighted indicators-the proportion of the population that is undernourished; the proportion of children who are underweight and under-five child mortality.

77.       In India 42.5% children under 5 years are underweight and 69.5 % are anaemic.

78.       The causes of malnutrition in India include variety of factors-social, political and economic.

79.       Social factors include: lack of awareness and education; early marriage and pregnancy; Patriarchal society customs, etc.

80.       Economic factors include: poor supply chain; poor healthcare facilities; poverty and unemployment and inflation.

81.       Political factors include: lack of political will, corruption and populist policies.

82.       Malnutrition weakens immune response and aggravates the effects of infection malnourished children tend to have more severe diarrheal episodes and are at a higher risk of pneumonia.

83.       Deserts are found across our planet along two fringes parallel to the equator at 25-35 degrees latitude in both the northern and southern hemispheres.

84.       Deserts are arid or dry regions and receive less than 10 inches of rain per year.

85.       The world's deserts occupy almost one-quarter of the earth's land surface, which is approximately 20.9 million square miles.

86.       The largest hot desert in the world, northern Africa's Sahara, reaches temperatures of up to 122 degrees Fahrenheit (50 degrees Celsius) during the day.

87.       Some deserts are always cold, like the Gobi desert in Asia and the desert on the continent of Antarctica.

88.       The animals that live in the desert usually have special adaptations that allow them to survive the extreme temperatures and conditions that are present in a desert.

89.       A camel can drink very large amounts of water in one day or survive for a relatively long time without drinking any water.

90.       Most plants in hot deserts have very small leaves. This reduces the amount of water loss through the surface of the leaves.

91.       Desert plants have extra long roots. They grow very deep or spread very far to search for water.

92.       Some of the world's semi-arid regions are turning into desert known as "desertification process caused by settlement of human populations on the semi-arid lands to grow crops and graze animals.

93.       e-Governance is basically the application of Information and communications Technology to the processes of Government functioning in order to bring about 'Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent' governance.

94.       "E-Government refers to the use by government agencies of information technologies that have the ability to transform relations with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government.

95.       The benefits of e-governance are: less corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, revenue growth, and/or cost reductions.

96.       There are four types of Interactions in e-Governance: Government to Government; Government to Citizens; Government to Business and Government to Employees.

97.       G2G signifies interaction only within the sphere of government and can be either horizontal or vertical. The primary objective is to increase efficiency, performance and output.

98.       G2C creates an interface between the government and citizens which enables the citizens to benefit from efficient delivery of a large range of public services.

99.       G2B uses e-Governance tools to aid the business community.

100.     Its objective is to cut red tape, save time, reduce operational costs and to create a more transparent business environment when dealing with the government.

101.     G2E is a two-way process between the organisation and the employee.

102.     Use of IcT tools in G2E helps in making these interactions fast and efficient on the one hand and increase satisfaction levels of employees on the other.

103.     Aadhar gives individuals the means to clearly establish their identity to public and private agencies across the country.

104.     It is a 12 digit individual identification number.

105.     Any person, irrespective of his/her age or gender, who is an ordinary resident citizen of India, can enroll for Aadhaar free of cost and the unique Aadhaar number remains valid for life.

106.     Aadhaar is an important means of financial inclusion.

107.     Aadhaar identifies individuals uniquely on the basis of their demographic information and biometrics.

108.     Aadhaar can be used in the delivery of the following programs: Food and Nutrition, Education, Employment, Healthcare, Inclusion and Social Security, etc.

109.     With the Aadhaar card even poor people can easily establish their identity to banks for opening accounts.

110.     The Aadhaar e-KYC (Know your customer) service provides an instant, electronic proof of identity and proof of address along with date of birth and gender.

111.     Under the DBT scheme, the entitled monetary benefits under the identified schemes are transferred directly to the bank account of the beneficiaries,which are linked with the Aadhaar number.

112.     Under DBT for LPG, all LPG consumers with Aadhaar numbers and whose bank accounts are linked to Aadhaar numbers are given an advance amount of Rs.435/- per cylinder booked, immediately on booking a cylinder.

113.     Sand is a rock material occurring in the form of loose, rounded or angular grains, varying in size from .06 mm to 2 mm in diameter.

114.     The particles of sand are smaller than those of gravel and larger than those of silt or clay.

115.     Sand is formed as a result of the weathering and decomposition of igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks.

116.     Whereas some sands e.g., coral sands, shell sands, and foraminiferal sands are organic in origin.

117.     Sand is used extensively in the manufacture of bricks, mortar, cement, concrete, plasters, paving materials, and refractory materials.

118.     Sand is the principal component in common glass.

119.     It is also used in the metallurgical industry, in the filtration of water, in pottery making, in glassmaking and in the manufacture of explosives.

120.     A little sandy soil permits the free movement of air in the soil, offers less resistance than a clay soil to growing roots, improves drainage, and increases ease of cultivation.

121.     Sandy soils are ideal for crops such as watermelons, peaches and peanuts.

122.     The most common constituent of sand, in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings, is silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the form of quartz.

123.     In order to redress the grievances of the citizens the institution of Lokayukta has been set up in the States.

124.     It has been recommended by the Administrative Reforms Commission, appointed by the Union Government in 1966.

125.     According to the Lokpal and Lokayukta bill 2011, the Lokayukta in every state will consist of a chairperson and eight other members.

126.     Lokayukta and other members will be appointed by governor of which CM of the state will be chairman of the selection committee.

127.     Any citizen or aggrieved person can make a complaint to the Lokayukta or it can take suo-moto investigation on the basis of information received by him otherwise than by way of complaints like newspapers, reports, etc.

128.     There is lack of uniformity about the provisions related to Lokayukta in different states.

129.     In some states, chief ministers come under the ambit of the Lokayukta, while in some others they do not.

130.     Lokayuktas are set-up in states on the basis of a law defining their composition and role made by the respective state assemblies.

131.     Maharashtra was the first state to introduce the institution of Lokayukta through The Maharashtra Lokayukta and Upa-Lokayuktas Act in 1971.

132.     There are no Lokayuktas in Arunachal Pradesh,Jammu and Kashmir,Manipur,Meghalaya,Mizoram,Nagaland,Sikkim,Tamil Nadu,Tripura and West Bengal.

133.     A supercomputer is a very powerful computational machine capable of processing trillions of commands per second.

134.     The Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), a scientific society under the administrative control of the Department of Electronicshas designed a general purpose Super computer 'PARAM'.

135.     C-DAC has deployed several Param supercomuters in India and abroad. It has sold Param supercomputers to the UK, Germany, Philippines and Singapore.

136.     Indian Space Research Organisation, the country's premier space-research institution, unveiled India's fastest supercomputer, SAGA-220.

137.     Param Yuva II was developed by C-DAC, it is the first supercomputer that has crossed 500 teraflops in computing power in India.

138.     Tianhe-2, a supercomputer developed by China's National University of Defense Technology, is the world's new No. 1 system with a performance of 33.86 petaflop/s.

139.     Titan, a Cray XK7 system installed at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ranked No. 2 with a performance of 17.59 petaflop/s.

140.     Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks such as problems including quantum physics, weather forecasting, climate research, molecular modeling and physical simulations.

141.     Seismic data processing can be done much more efficiently using super computer.

142.     The main users of the supercomputer would be the scientific institutes, research laboratories and universities.

143.     Andhra Pradesh was formed on 1st November, 1956 under the States' reorganisation scheme.

144.     Andhra Pradesh is bound on the north by Orrisa and Chhattisgarh, on the west by Maharashtra and Karnataka, on the south by Tamil Nadu and on the east by the Bay of Bengal with a coastline of 974 km.

145.     It is the fifth largest State with an area of 2,76,754 sq. km, accounting for 8.4 % of India's territory.

146.     Telugu is the official language of Andhra Pradesh. The prominent poets of Telugu include Nannaya, Tikkana,Sri Nathudu, Tenali Rama Krishna, Sri Krishna Devarayulu.

147.     Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of rice in India.

148.     Andhra Pradesh is also the leading producer of cash crops like Tobacco, Groundnut, Chillies, Turmeric, Oilseeds, Cotton, Sugar and Jute.

149.     Telangana and Andhra Pradesh states will be formed with the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh.

150.     Telangana will be formed with ten districts: Rangareddy, Medak, Mahbubnagar, Nalgonda, Khammam, Warangal, Karimnagar, Adilabad and Nizamabad.

151.     Andhra Pradesh will have 13 districts: Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam, Nellore, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, West Godavari, Chittoor, Kurnool, Cuddapah and Anantapur.

152.     Hyderabad will be the common capital for ten years for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states.

153.     A stock market or equity market is a public entity for the trading of company stocks (shares) and derivatives at an agreed price; these are securities listed on a stock exchange.

154.     The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) was established in 1875; is Asia's first Stock Exchange and one of India's leading exchange groups.

155.     The Bombay Stock Exchange developed the BSE SENSEX in 1986, giving the BSE a means to measure overall performance of the exchange.

156.     In 1989 BSE National Index (Base: 1983-84) was introduced. It comprised of 100 stocks, listed at five major stock exchanges in India -Mumbai, Calcutta, Delhi, Ahmadabad and Madras.

157.     The Bombay Stock Exchange switched to an electronic trading system in 1995 and introduced automated, screen-based trading platform called BSE On-line Trading (BOLT).

158.     The BSE has also introduced the world's first centralized exchange-based internet trading system, BSEWEBx.co.in to enable investors anywhere in the world to trade on the BSE platform.

159.     The BSE has launched the Green Index called GREENEX. This is India's first carbon-efficient live index which measures the performances of companies in terms of carbon emissions.

160.     The GREENEX index comprises 20 stocks based on a minimum carbon footprint, market capitalisation and turnover.

161.     The BSE has also launched Carbonex in collaboration with the UK government.

162.     The index will enable investors to track performance of the companies that are part of the BSE-100 Index regarding their commitment to greenhouse gases emissions reductions.

163.     Laterite is a soil type rich in iron and aluminium, formed by weathering in hot and wet tropical areas.

164.     These are mainly found in high rainfall areas with pronounced dry & wet periods.

165.     They develop by intensive and long-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock.

166.     These soils are poor in lime, magnesia nitrogen, potassium oxide but humus and P2Os is high.

167.     It is found in small parts of the states of Tamil Nadu and Orissa and a small portion of the Chota Nagpur Plateau in the north and Meghalaya in north-east.

168.     Due to the presence of iron oxides the colour of laterite soil is basically red.

169.     The soil is best for tea, coffee, rubber, coconut and suitable for rice and millet (if manured).

170.     When dry Laterite soil becomes hard and thus forms a useful building material.

171.     Laterite soil is acidic in nature.

172.     Laterites are a source of aluminium ore.

173.     Kerosene is a thin, clear liquid formed from hydrocarbons obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum between 150 degree C and 275 degree C.

174.     Kerosene was discovered in 1853 by Abraham Gesner.

175.     Kerosene is extracted from a mixture of petroleum chemicals consists of oil, rocks, water, and other contaminates in subterranean reservoirs made of porous layers of sandstone and carbonate rock.

176.     In X-ray crystallography, kerosene is used to store crystals.

177.     It is used as a fuel in jet engines.

178.     Kerosene is used as a solvent able to remove other petroleum products such as chain grease.

179.     Kerosene has been found to be an effective pesticide. It is effective at killing a large number of insects, notably bed bugs and head lice.

180.     It can also be applied to standing pools of water in order to kill mosquito larvae.

181.     Incomplete combustion of kerosene fuel often yields black carbon that leads to global warming.

182.     Acute and chronic exposure to kerosene may cause irritability, restlessness, drowsiness, convulsions, coma and death.

183.     The Theosophical Society was founded in 1875, in New York City by Russian noblewoman Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and American Colonel Henry Steel Olcott.

184.     Madame Blavatsky was the first Russian woman to be naturalized as an American citizen.

185.     The society aimed at forming a nucleus of the universal brotherhood of humanity without distinction of race, creed, sex, caste, or colour and to encourage the study of comparative religion, philosophy, and science.

186.     The headquarter of society was in Adyar, Madras in India.

187.     Annie Besant became the president of the Theosophical society in 1907.

188.     She was a prominent British socialist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self-rule.

189.     She also get involved in politics in India by joining the Indian National Congress and became its president in 1917.

190.     In 1914 she launched the Home Rule League to campaign for democracy in India and dominion status within the Empire

191.     Annie Besant played a pivotal role in the setting up of the Hindu University of Benares and continued to be a member of all the policy-making committees of the university.

192.     She was also the founder president of "Women's India Association".

193.     Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used in radio communication technologies.

194.     CDMA uses spread spectrum technology with the use of different codes to separate between different stations or users rather than different frequencies of time slots as in the case of previous access technologies.

195.     The signal is transmitted in a channel, which is below noise level and the receiver uses a correlator to despread the wanted signal.

196.     CDMA is a military technology first used during World War II by English allies to foil German attempts at jamming transmissions.

197.     The first CDMA system was launched in September 1995 by Hutchison Telephone Co. Ltd. in Hong Kong.

198.     CDMA is used as the access method in many mobile phone standards such as cdmaOne, CDMA2000 and WCDMA.

199.     CDMA provides increased immunity to interference or jamming, and multiple user access.

200.     The use of the spreading codes which are independent for each user along with synchronous reception allow multiple users to access the same channel simultaneously.

201.     Disadvantage in CDMA is that the receivers need a complex and robust design to decode the signal.

202.     CDMA carriers cannot offer international roaming.

203.     A national park is a reserve of natural or semi-natural land, declared or owned by a government.

204.     Visitors are allowed to enter, under special conditions, for inspirational, educative, cultural, and recreative purposes.

205.     Article 51 A (g), was inserted for making it the fundamental duty of every citizen to protect and improve the natural environment, including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures.

206.     Article 48-A states that the State shall Endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country

207.     India's first national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park, now known as Jim Corbett National Park.

208.     In 1972 the Wildlife Protection Act was enacted to safeguard the habitats of conservation reliant species.

209.     The Kaziranga National Park, Manas National Park, Nanda Devi National Park, the Sundarbans National Park, Keoladeo National Park and Western Ghats have been declared as World Heritage Sites.

210.     Wildlife sanctuaries are reserved (set aside) by a governmental or private agency for the protection of particular species of animals during part or all of the year.

211.     The first wildlife sanctuary was the Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary near Madras, set up in 1878.

212.     Dachigam Sanctuary in Jammu and Kashmir is famous for the Hangul, or the Kashmir Stag.

213.     Jute is known as the golden fibre which is sown between March and June and harvested is November-December.

214.     Jute requires humid climate with temperature fluctuating between 24 degree Celsius and 38 degree Celsius and minimum rainfall of 1000 mm.

215.     The best varieties of Jute are Bangla Tosha - Corchorus olitorius (Golden shine) & Bangla White - Corchorus capsularis (Whitish Shine).

216.     Jute is 100% bio-degradable & recyclable and thus environment friendly.

217.     Jute has high tensile strength, and low extensibility.

218.     Jute is one of the most versatile natural fibres with renewable resource having applications in packaging, textiles and non-textile sectors.

219.     Jute naturally protects perishable goods during storage, reducing product losses and prolonging storage life

220.     Geotextiles are made of environmentally friendly, degradable and renewable jute or coconut raw material. They distinguish themselves by high moisture absorption, flexibility and drainage characteristics.

221.     The production process in jute industry involves cultivation of raw jute, processing of jute fibres, spinning, weaving, bleaching, dyeing, finishing and marketing of both raw jute and its finished products.

222.     The jute textiles industry in India is one of the major industries in the eastern region, particularly in West Bengal. It supports nearly 4 million farm families.

223.     The Securities and Exchange Board of India was established on April 12, 1992 in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992.

224.     SEBI Headquarter is in Mumbai, and has Northern, Eastern, Southern and Western Regional Offices in New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Ahmedabad respectively.

225.     Its main objective is to protect the interests of investors in securities and to promote the development of, and to regulate the securities market and for matters connected therewith.

226.     Primary market is the market where shares are offered to investors by the issuer company to raise their capital.

227.     Secondary market is the market where stocks are traded after they are initially offered to the investor in primary market (IPO's etc.) and get listed to stock exchange.

228.     When an unlisted company makes either a fresh issue of securities or offers its existing securities for sale or both for the first time to the public, it is called an IPO.

229.     When an already listed company makes either a fresh issue of securities to the public or an offer for sale to the public, it is called a FPO.

230.     A bull market is when everything in the economy is great, people are finding jobs, gross domestic product (GDP) is growing, and stocks are rising.

231.     A bear market is when the economy is bad, recession is looming and stock prices are falling.

232.     Upendra Kumar Sinha was appointed as the chairman of SEBI replacing C. B. Bhave.

233.     Ajanta Caves are located just outside the village of Ajintha in Aurangabad district of the state of Maharashtra.

234.     These caves were discovered in AD 1819 and were built up in the earlier 2nd century BC-AD.

235.     All paintings show heavy religious influence related to Buddha, Bodhisattvas, incidents from the life of Buddha and the Jatakas.

236.     There are in total 30 excavations found at the site, including an unfinished one. Out of the total, five caves are chaityagrihas (stupa monument halls) while the rest are viharas (monastic halls of residence).

237.     The base surface of the paintings on walls and ceilings consisted of a rough layer of ferruginous earth mixed with rock-grit or sand, vegetable fibres, paddy husk, grass and other fibrous material of organic origin.

238.     The colors and shades used were red and yellow ochre, terra verte, lime, kaolin, gypsum, lamp black and lapis lazuli.

239.     The main binding material used in the paintings was glue.

240.     The Style of caves belongs to Satavahana, Vakataka and Gupta Architecture.

241.     The caves in Ajanta are primarily Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhist caves, the Ellora cave temples belong to Hindu, Buddhist and Jain religions.

242.     The Ajanta Caves have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983.

243.     Tropical rainforests are found near the Equator between 0 degree to 10 degree north and south of the Equator.

244.     It is spread over the parts of three continents, Asia, Africa and South America.

245.     In South America, the region includes the Amazon lowlands and coastal lowlands of North-eastern Brazil, coastal Colombia and parts of adjoining Ecuador.

246.     In Africa, it covers the entire Zaire (Congo) basin and the Guinea Coast in West Africa.

247.     In Asia, it covers the areas of Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Papua, parts of Philippines, peninsular Thailand, Nicobar Islands, parts of Sri Lanka, etc.

248.     The temperatures throughout the year are very high and average between 25 degree C to 30 degree C.

249.     The rainfall is of convectional type, averages between 150 to 350 cm.

250.     The trees of equatorial forests form a thick canopy, and the sunlight is prevented from reaching the forest floor.

251.     Important trees are: mahogany, rose-wood, ebony, iron-wood, green-heart, cinchona, rubber, etc.

252.     They are also known as the "Lungs of the World" because they absorb a very large amount of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and exhale huge amount of oxygen.

253.     The Code of Criminal Procedure is the main legislation on procedure for administration of substantive criminal law in India.

254.     The Criminal Procedure Code, 1861 was passed by the British parliament.

255.     The 1861 code continued after independence and was amended in 1969. It was finally replaced in 1972.

256.     It provides the machinery for the investigation of crime, apprehension of suspected criminals, collection of evidence, determination of guilt or innocence of the accused person and the determination of punishment of the guilty.

257.     The Act consists of 484 sections, 2 schedules and 56 forms. The sections are divided into 38 chapters.

258.     The Criminal Procedure Code extends to the whole of India except the States in India of Jammu and Kashmir.

259.     Provisions under Chapters VIII, X and XI of the code do not apply to the State of Nagaland and some tribal areas in Assam.

260.     Cognizable offences are those offences for which a police officer may arrest without court mandated warrant.

261.     First Information Report is made to police, about commission of a cognizable offence to an officer in charge of a police station, and shall be signed by the person giving such information.

262.     In India, after an FIR has been filed the contents of the FIR cannot be changed except by a ruling from the High Court or the Supreme Court of India

263.     Chhattisgarh is carved out of Madhya Pradesh came into being on 1 November 2000 as the 26th State of the Union.

264.     Chhattisgarh is bounded by southern Jharkhand and Orrisa in the east, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra in the west, Uttar Pradesh and western Jharkhand in the north and Andhra Pradesh in the south.

265.     Areawise Chhattisgrh is the ninth largest state and population wise it is seventeenth state of the nation.

266.     The state animal is the van bhainsa, or wild water buffalo.

267.     The state bird is the pahari myna, or hill myna.

268.     The state tree is the Sal, or Sarai,found in Baster division.

269.     The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state. The other main rivers are Hasdo (a tributary of Mahanadi), Rihand, Indravati, Jonk, Arpa and Shivnath.

270.     Chhattisgarh has one of the lowest standards of living in India as per the Income Index (0.127) but according to 2011 Census literacy rate is 71 per cent.

271.     The official language of the state is Hindi and is used by non-rural population of the state while majority of the people speak Chhattisgarhi.

272.     Panthi, Rawat Nacha, Karma, Pandwani, Chaitra, Kaksar, Saila and Soowa are the several indigenous dance styles of Chhattisgarh.

273.     The Constitution of India provides for an Independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India.

274.     He is appointed by the President of India by warrant under his hand and seal.

275.     He holds office for a period of six years or upto the age of 65 years, which ever is earlier.

276.     He can be removed by the President on the basis of a resolution passed to that effect by both the houses of Parliament with special majority, either on ground of proved misbehavior or incapacity.

277.     He audits the accounts related to all expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of India as well as Consolidated Fund of each State and the Union Territory having a legislative assembly.

278.     He audits all expenditure from the Contingency fund of India and the Public Account of India as well as Contingency fund of each State and the Public account of each State.

279.     He audits all trading, manufacturing, profit and loss accounts, balance sheets and other subsidiary accounts kept by any department of the Central Government and State Government.

280.     According to Article 150 of the Constitution CAG advices the president with regard to prescription of the form in which the accounts of the centre and the states shall be kept.

281.     CAG submits 3 audit reports to the president-Audit report on appropriation accounts; Audit report on finance accounts and Audit report on public undertakings.

282.     Shashi Kant Sharma has been sworn in as a new CAG of India by the President Pranab Mukherjee.

283.     The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997. Whereas it entered into force on 16 February 2005.

284.     The Protocol is based on a principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities."

285.     GHGs enshrined in Kyoto Protocol are CO2; methane; nitrous oxide; Sulphur hexafluoride; hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons.

286.     It only binds developed countries because it recognizes that they are largely responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere.

287.     Kyoto Protocol sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community.

288.     The goals of Kyoto were to see participants collectively reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% below the emission levels of 1990 by 2012.

289.     During the Doha meet it has been agreed that the Kyoto Protocol will enter a second commitment period that will run for eight years.

290.     Kazakhstan, Cyprus, Malta, and Belarus did not have reduction commitments for 2008-2012 under the Kyoto Protocol.

291.     Canada, Japan, New Zealand' and Russia are not Parties to the second commitment period to the Kyoto protocol.

292.     The primary functions of lungs are to transport oxygen from the air into your bloodstream while taking away carbon dioxide, which is released during breathing out.

293.     Most vertebrate animals (animals with spines) have two lungs.

294.     The lung on the left side of human body is divided into two lobes while the lung on right side is divided into three. The left lung is also slightly smaller.

295.     The lungs are the largest organ in the body and the only organ inside the body that is exposed to the outside.

296.     Human respiratory system breathes in between 2,100 and 2,400 gallons (8,000 and 9,000 liters) of air each day.

297.     The brain directs the rate of inhalation and exhalation of the lungs. It can quickly sense the concentration of oxygen in the air, and increases or decreases the rate of respiration accordingly.

298.     The air sacs of the lungs called as alveoli are tiny spongy structures in the lung. There are approximately 600 million alveoli in the lungs.

299.     The study of lung diseases is known as pulmonology.

300.     Lung diseases include influenza, pneumonia, tuberculosis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis and cystic fibrosis and cancer.

301.     Smoking introduces tar into the lungs, and that tar can encourage uncontrollable cell growth and thus help develop cancer.

302.     Lord Mountbatten became Viceroy to India in March 1947 and proposed Mountbatten Plan for partition of India.

303.     The plan led to the enactment of the Indian Independence Act on 18 July 1947.

304.     The Act had divided British India into the two new and fully sovereign dominions of India and Pakistan, with effect from 15 August 1947.

305.     Eastern Bengal, Western Punjab, Sindh and North-West Frontier Province would be included in Pakistan.

306.     According the Act the British Government would transfer all powers to these two Dominions.

307.     A Boundary Commission was formed to demarcate the boundaries of the provinces of the Punjab and Bengal.

308.     The Act provided for the transfer of power to the Constituent Assemblies of the two Dominions, which will have full authority to frame their respective Constitutions.

309.     It was not obligatory on the part of both the nations to accept the membership of the British Commonwealth of Nations. The choice was left to India and Pakistan.

310.     It was not obligatory on the part of both the nations to accept the membership of the British Commonwealth of Nations. The choice was left to India and Pakistan.

311.     The Act of 1947 provided for the abolition of the office of the Secretary of State for India and his advisers.

312.     The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization working on issues regarding the conservation, research and restoration of the environment.

313.     The World Wildlife Fund was established in 1961 as an international fundraising organization that would provide money for conservation groups working around the globe.

314.     The central secretariat for the network - called WWF International - is located in Gland, Switzerland (organizational structure).

315.     WWF's current strategy for achieving its mission specifically focuses on restoring populations of 36 species including elephants, tunas, whales, dolphins and porpoises), and ecological footprinting.

316.     The organization also works on a number of global issues driving biodiversity loss and unsustainable use of natural resources, including finance, business practices, laws, and consumption choices.

317.     WWF publishes the Living Planet Index in collaboration with the Zoological Society of London.

318.     WWF in 1985 expands conservation programs in Asia and Africa, showcasing the new Annapurna National Park in Nepal and strengthening projects to protect mountain gorillas in Rwanda.

319.     In carrying out its work, WWF cooperates with many partners, includingUN organizations, IUCN, and development agencies such as USAID and the World Bank. WWF also works with business & industry partners.

320.     WWF helps create the first national park in Bhutan by transforming the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary in 1986.

321.     The government of Nepal declares Kanchenjunga, the world's third-highest mountain, as a special conservation area in 1997.

322.     NATO was founded on April 4, 1949, under the direction of the United States and with the participation of 11 western European nations.

323.     It was formed as a tool to check the Warsaw Treaty Organization-formed by the former Soviet Union and a number of eastern European countries after their signing of the Warsaw Pact.

324.     It consists of 28 countries from North America and Europe committed to fulfilling the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty.

325.     The fundamental role of NATO is to safeguard the freedom and security of its member countries by political and military means and plays an important role in crisis management and peacekeeping.

326.     The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.

327.     In the wake of the September 11 terrorist attack in 2001 in the U.S, the alliance shifted its focus to combating terrorism, and extended its military force to Asia by entering the war in Afghanistan.

328.     The highest decision making body is the North Atlantic Council composed of permanent representatives of all 28 member countries.

329.     US is the biggest contributor to the military expenditure of NATO.

330.     English and French are the official languages of NATO.

331.     NATO's headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium.

332.     The Param Vir Chakra (PVC) is India's highest military decoration awarded for the highest degree of valour or self-sacrifice in the presence of the enemy which can be awarded posthumously.

333.     The PVC was established on 26 January 1950 by the President of India, with effect from 15 August 1947.

334.     It is the second highest award of the government of India after Bharat Ratna.

335.     Major Som Nath Sharma of 4th Battalion, Kumaon Regiment was awarded the first Param Vir Chakra.

336.     The Maha Vir Chakra (MVC) is the second highest military decoration in India and is awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry in the presence of the enemy, whether on land, at sea or in the air.

337.     Vir Chakra is third in precedence in the war time gallantry.

338.     The Indian Peacetime Gallantry Awards comprised of the Ashoka Chakra, The Kirti Chakra and the Shaurya Chakra.

339.     These three awards are given for showing conspicuous gallantry or bravery but away from the Battlefield such as for counter insurgency operations, and other situations where the awardee is not necessarily in the Field of the Battle.

340.     Initially the three awards were known as the Ashoka Chakra Class 1, Ashoka Chakra Class II and Ashoka Chakra Class III. After 1967 they were renamed as the current Ashoka, Kirti and Shaurya Chakras.

341.     Ashoka Chakra has replaced the British George Cross.

342.     National Sports Awards are given every year to recognize and reward excellence in sports.

343.     The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna (RGKR) is India's highest honour given for achievement in sports.

344.     It carries a medal, a scroll of honour and a substantial cash component of Rs. 750,000.

345.     Olympic silver medallist shooter Vijay Kumar and bronze medal-winning wrestler Yogeshwar Dutt received the prestigious Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award for 2012.

346.     The Arjuna Awards were instituted in 1961 to recognise for consistently outstanding performance for three consecutive years proceeding the year of award.

347.     The award carries a cash prize of 500,000, a bronze statuette of Arjuna and a scroll.

348.     From the year 2001, the award is given only in disciplines falling under the following categories: Olympic Games / Asian Games / Commonwealth Games / World Cup / World Championship Disciplines and Cricket; Indigenous Games and Sports for the Physically Challenged.

349.     Dronacharya award is an award presented by the government of India for excellence in sports coaching.

350.     Dhyan Chand Award is India's highest award for lifetime achievement in sports and games. The award is named after the legendary Indian hockey player Dhyan Chand.

351.     B.I. Fernandez, the boxing coach from Cuba who has been working with the Indian boxers for the last 22 years, get the Dronacharya award.

352.     The Indian honour system is primarily recognized by Indian Central Government since 1954,

353.     'Bharat Ratna' is the highest civilian Award of the country instituted in the year 1954.

354.     It is awarded in recognition of exceptional service/performance of the highest order in any field of human endeavour.

355.     The number of annual awards is restricted to a maximum of three in a particular year.

356.     Padma Awards were instituted in the year 1954. Except for brief interruptions during the years 1978 and 1979 and 1993 to 1997, these awards have been announced every year on Republic Day.

357.     The award is given in three categories, namely, Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri.

358.     Padma Shri is awarded for 'distinguished service'; Padma Bhushan for 'distinguished service of a high order; and Padma Vibhushan for 'exceptional and distinguished service.

359.     The award seeks to recognize work of any distinction and is given for distinguished and exceptional achievements/service in all fields of activities/disciplines, such as Art, Literature and Education, Sports, Medicine, Social Work, Science and Engineering, Public Affairs, Civil Service, Trade and Industry etc.

360.     A higher category of Padma award can be conferred on a person only where a period of at least five years has elapsed since conferment of the earlier Padma award. However, in highly deserving cases, a relaxation can be made by the Awards Committee.

361.     The decoration comprises a Sanad (Certificate) issued under the hand and seal of the President and a Medallion.

362.     The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced.

363.     It kills nearly 6 million people a year of whom more than 5 million are from direct tobacco use and more than 600 000 are nonsmokers exposed to second-hand smoke.

364.     Tobacco users who die prematurely deprive their families of income, raise the cost of health care and hinder economic development.

365.     Nearly 80% of the world's one billion smokers live in low- and middle-income countries thus increases the burden manifold.

366.     Children from poor households are employed in tobacco farming to provide family income.

367.     These children suffer from "green tobacco sickness", which is caused by the nicotine that is absorbed through the skin from the handling of wet tobacco leaves.

368.     Consumption of tobacco products is increasing globally, though it is decreasing in some high-income and upper middle-income countries.

369.     Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn tobacco products such as cigarettes, bidis and water pipes.

370.     In adults, second-hand smoke causes serious cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, including coronary heart disease and lung cancer. In infants, it causes sudden death. In pregnant women, it causes low birth weight.

371.     The World Health Organization (WHO) has selected "Ban tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship" as the theme of the World No Tobacco Day, which will take place on 31 May 2013.

372.     Honey is comprised of fructose, glucose, water, vitamins, minerals and amino acids.

373.     The average pH of honey is 3.91, but it can range from 3.42 - 6.10.

374.     Honey has a lower glycemic index than sugar. This means it doesn't raise blood sugar levels as quickly.

375.     Because of its high concentration of sugar, high acidity, and presence of naturally-occurring hydrogen peroxide, honey is hostile to bacteria growth.

376.     Honey is hygroscopic i.e. it sucks moisture from the air. It keeps baked good moist and also adds shelf-life because of its anti-bacterial, or anti-oxidant, qualities.

377.     Honey stored in air tight containers never spoils. Sealed honey vats found in King Tut's tomb still contained edible honey, despite over 2,000 years beneath the sands.

378.     Pure Honey is healthy because it contains the pollen of local flowers, may help to lessen the effect of allergies. It also helps accustom the body to the local environment.

379.     Pure Honey is used to heal open wounds, burns, pink eye, blisters, sores, skin and scalp irritations.

380.     Pure honey has been recognized as a cure for malnutrition, old age, insanity, stomach disorders and nerve disorders.

381.     Pure honey is pre-digested i.e. when eaten; simple sugars are absorbed directly into the body's bloodstream for instant energy.

382.     Iron is essential for our bodies to function properly as it is used for making the oxygen-carrying proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin.

383.     Iron helps in producing new red blood cells, which transport oxygen from the lungs in order to replenish tissue and then returns carbon dioxide back to the lungs to be dispensed.

384.     Iron is also involved in the conversion of blood sugar to energy.

385.     Iron is lost from the body through shedding intestinal cells, sweat and blood loss.

386.     A lack of iron in the body could result in anemia resulting in the bone marrow failing to produce enough red blood cells.

387.     Iron deficiency can delay normal infant motor function (normal activity and movement) or mental function (normal thinking and processing skills).

388.     Iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy can increase risk for small or early (preterm) babies.

389.     Iron deficiency can cause fatigue that impairs the ability to do physical work in adults.

390.     Iron found in animal foods such as beef, lamb, chicken, egg yolks and fish are known as Haem Iron.

391.     Iron found in plant foods such as dried beans and lentils are known as non-Haem Iron.

392.     Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon with a small percentage of other metals such as nickel, chromium, aluminum, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten etc.

393.     Steels can be broadly categorized into four groups based on their chemical compositions: Carbon Steels; Alloy Steels; Stainless Steels and High Speed Steels.

394.     Carbon steel is simply composed of iron and carbon with a more percentage of carbon in it than the iron.

395.     The presence of excess carbon makes this type of steel softer than the others thus It is used in the making of axes, swords, scissors and other cutting tools.

396.     Alloy steels contain alloying elements (e.g. manganese, silicon) in varying proportions which manipulate the steel's properties, such as its hardenability, corrosion resistance, strength, formability, weldability or ductility.

397.     Applications for alloys steel include pipelines, auto parts, transformers, power generators and electric motors.

398.     Stainless steels generally contain between 10-20% chromium as the main alloying element and have high corrosion resistance.

399.     Stainless steel is used in the making of crockery, wrist watches, kitchen utensils, cutlery and surgical equipments.

400.     High speed steel is an alloy of steel which may consists of either of the following metals: tungsten, cobalt, molybdenum or chromium.

401.     High speed steel is probably the toughest of all the types thus used mainly in cutting and drilling equipment.

402.     Humans are born with 300 bones in their body, however when a person reaches adulthood they only have 206 bones. This occurs because many of them join together to make a single bone.

403.     Bones consist of 50% water and 50% solid matter.

404.     There are around 14 bones are in the face, 8 bones are in each wrist, 27 bones in each hand, 23 bones are in each foot including the ankle and 30 bones in the skull.

405.     The largest bone is the pelvis, or hip bone. In fact it is made of six bones joined firmly together.

406.     The longest bone is the 'femur', in the thigh. It makes up almost one quarter of the body's total height.

407.     The smallest bone is the 'stirrup', deep in the ear. It is hardly larger than a grain of rice.

408.     The ears and end of the nose do not have bones inside them. Their inner supports are cartilage or 'gristle', which is lighter and more flexible than bone. This is why the nose and ears can be bent.

409.     After death, cartilage rots faster than bone. This is why the skulls of skeletons have no nose or ears.

410.     Bone marrow is found in the hollow bones, that produces new red and white blood cells.

411.     Osteoporosis is a condition where the bones become thin and weak as the body attempts to take calcium from the bones, due to insufficient calcium in the bloodstream.

412.     A fossil fuel, it is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and undergo intense heat and pressure.

413.     Petroleum is a naturally occurring flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons - hexane, octane and heptanes.

414.     The word "petroleum" was coined by German mineralogist Georg Bauer in 1556.

415.     The petrol contains three times as much energy as nitro glycerine, and four times as much energy as dynamite (T.N.T.).

416.     Petrol is more volatile than diesel oil, Jet-A.

417.     In hot weather, gasoline components of higher molecular weight and thus lower volatility are used. In cold weather, too little volatility results in cars failing to start.

418.     Petrol, when used in high-compression internal combustion engines, has a tendency to autoignite causing damaging "engine knocking". Thus to eliminate it lead (IV) tetraethyl is added.

419.     A higher octane rating allows a higher compression ratio or supercharger boost, and thus higher temperatures and pressures, which translate to higher power output.

420.     Oxygenates are generally added to the petrol reduces the amount of carbon monoxide and unburned fuel in the exhaust gas.

421.     The use of fossil fuels such as petroleum can have a negative impact on Earth's biosphere, releasing pollutants and greenhouse gases into the air and damaging ecosystems through events such as oil spills.

422.     Jainism is an ancient Indian religion that emphasizes non-violence and the ascetic life.

423.     According to Jain Tradition there were 24 Thithankaras, the first being Rishabhdev and the last being Mahavira.

424.     The three gems of Jainism are: Right Faith; Right Knowledge and Right Action.

425.     The five vows of Jainism are: Ahimsa (non injury); Satya (non lying); Asteya (non stealing); Aparigraha (non possession) and Brahmacharya.

426.     Jainism has 2 main sects: the Shvetambara ('White-robed') and the Digambara ('Sky-clad'). The Sky-clad are naked.

427.     The biggest event in the Jain calendar is the holy week (8-10 days) of Paryushan where Jains reflect upon their actions throughout the past year.

428.     The ultimate goal of Jainism the liberation of the self (jiva) from rebirth, which is attained through the elimination of accumulated karma (the consequences of previous actions).

429.     Jains believe that animals and plants, as well as human beings, contain living souls. Each of these souls is considered of equal value and should be treated with respect and compassion.

430.     Jains are adhere to a quite arduous practice of non-violence, which restricts the sorts of occupations the may follow (no farming, for instance, since insects are inadvertently harmed in plowing).

431.     The important Jain texts: Kalpasutra; Bhadrabahu Charita and Parishishta Parvan.

432.     The Buddhist tradition is founded on and inspired by the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, who was born in 563 BC at Lumbinivana in Kapilvastu.

433.     At the age of 35 under a pipal tree at Bodh Gaya on the bank of river Falgu, he had attained Nirvana.

434.     He had delivered his first sermon at Sarnath to his five deciples, this is known as Dharmachakra Pravartana.

435.     The three jewels of Buddhism are - The Buddha, the Sangha or the monastic community and The Dharma or truth or teachings.

436.     The four noble truths of Buddhism are - Life is filled with suffering, this suffering is caused by human desires and attachments, suffering can be eliminated and this can be done by following the Eight-fold path.

437.     The noble eightfold path is - Right beliefs, right aspirations, right speech, right livelihood, right conduct, right effort, right mindfulness, right meditational attainment.

438.     The sacred text of the Buddhists is known as Pali Canon or Tripitaka.

439.     Two major branches of Buddhism are generally recognized: Theravada ("The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ("The Great Vehicle").

440.     Theravada has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar etc.). Mahayana is found throughout East Asia (China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan etc.)

441.     He had died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar.

442.     Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is electromagnetic radiation, with wavelengths between 100 and 400 nm.

443.     Ultraviolet (UV) radiation comes from natural sources (the sun) and artificial sources (like welding equipment, lasers, tanning equipment and certain lamps).

444.     Small amounts of UV radiation are essential for the production of vitamin D in humans.

445.     Overexposure to UV has been linked to the following negative health effects: sunburns; premature skin aging; skin cancer; eye problems and weakening of the immune system.

446.     Ultraviolet rays can be subdivided into three different wavelength bands - UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C. the classification is based on the amount of energy they contain and their effects on biological matter.

447.     UV-C is most energetic and most harmful; UV-A is least energetic and least harmful.

448.     Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of UV radiation. Excessive sun exposure in children is likely to contribute to skin cancer in later life.

449.     The UV index (UVI) is the international standard for UV measurement, developed by WHO, the United Nations Environment Program and the World Meteorological Organization.

450.     It is designed to indicate the potential for adverse health effects and to encourage people to protect themselves.

451.     The higher the UVI value, the greater the potential for damage to the skin and eye

452.     Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere.

453.     Pollutants of major public health concern include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide.

454.     Household combustion devices, motor vehicles, industrial facilities and forest fires are common sources of air pollution.

455.     Nearly 2 million people die prematurely from illness attributable to indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use.

456.     More than 1 million people a year die from chronic obstructive respiratory disease (COPD) that develop due to exposure to smoke of wood, animal dung and crop waste and coal used in household activities.

457.     Women exposed to heavy indoor smoke are three times as likely to suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (e.g. chronic bronchitis), than women who use cleaner fuels

458.     WHO has launched Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, to promote improved biomass cookstove designs that can substantially reduce indoor air pollution.

459.     The WHO household energy database is used to monitor global progress in the transition to cleaner fuels and improved stoves and to contribute to assessments of disease burden from household energy.

460.     Tackling indoor air pollution will help achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), in particular MDG 4 (reduce child mortality) and MDG 5 (improve maternal health).

461.     It will also contribute to gender equality (MDG 3) as well as freeing women's time for income generation that helps eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (MDG 1).

462.     Cauvery is the most sacred river of South India, also called as the Dakshina Ganga.

463.     It rises on Brahmagiri Hill of the Western Ghats in southwestern Karnataka state and flows through the states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and a Union Territory of Puducherry.

464.     Cauvery basin spans an area around 81155 km2 and runs from a northwest to south eastern direction along a general south easterly slope.

465.     The basin can be divided into three parts: the Western Ghats area, the Plateau of Mysore and the Delta. The delta area is the most fertile tract in the basin.

466.     Left Hand Tributaries of Cauvery are Hemvati and Yagachi, Shimsha river, Arkavati River.

467.     Right Hand Tributaries are Lakshman Tirtha and Kabbani, Svarnavati, Amravati and Noyil.

468.     The principal soil types found in the basin are red soils, black soils, laterite, alluvial soils, forest soils and mixed soils.

469.     The primary uses of Cauvery are providing water for irrigation, water for household consumption and the generation of electricity.

470.     The north-east monsoon provides the greater portion of the annual precipitation.

471.     Doddabetta (2,637m) is the highest point of the Cauvery basin.

472.     Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy emitted and absorbed by charged particles which exhibits wave-like behavior as it travels through space.

473.     The electromagnetic spectrum is the entire range of wavelengths of all known electromagnetic radiations consisting of radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x rays, and gamma rays.

474.     Electromagnetic waves vary in length and frequency. The shorter the wave, the higher its frequency (and also its energy).

475.     All electromagnetic waves travel at 300,000 kilometers per second, which is the speed of light.

476.     Gamma rays are high energy waves capable of travelling long distances through air and are the most penetrating waves.

477.     X-rays have been used in various applications in science and industry and are primarily used in medicine for instance in radiography.

478.     X-rays are emitted by electrons outside the nucleus, while gamma rays are emitted by the nucleus.

479.     Visible light is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that human eyes can detect. It covers all colours from blue at 400 nm to red at 700 nm, with blue light having more energy than red light.

480.     Infrared (IR) radiation is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum lying between visible light and microwaves. The most important natural source of infrared radiation is the sun.

481.     Radio waves have long wavelengths, ranging from a few centimetres to many thousands of kilometres in length. They are used among other things for television, cell phone and radio communications.

482.     The Attorney General is the first law officer of the government of India.

483.     The Attorney General is appointed by the President and he holds office during the pleasure of the President.

484.     His duties are to advise the government on legal matters to perform other legal duties which are referred or assigned to him by the President and to discharge the functions conferred on by him by the Constitution.

485.     The Attorney General appears on behalf of Government of India in all cases (including suits, appeals and other proceedings) in the Supreme Court in which Government of India is concerned.

486.     In order to be appointed as the Attorney General a person must be qualified to be appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court.

487.     Though he is not a member of the Cabinet he has the right to speak in both the Houses of Parliament and any committee thereof, but he has no right to vote.

488.     The Attorney General is assisted by a Solicitor General and four Additional Solicitors General.

489.     The Solicitor General of India is the secondary law officer of the country, assists the Attorney General, and is himself assisted by several Additional Solicitors General of India.

490.     However, unlike the post of Attorney General for India, which is a Constitutional post under Article 76 of the Constitution of India, the posts of the Solicitor General and the Additional Solicitors General are merely statutory.

491.     Goolam E. Vahanvati is the Attorney General of India whereas Mohan Parasaran is the Solicitor General of India.

492.     Nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple like-charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus.

493.     The total mass of the new atom is less than that of the two that formed it; the "missing" mass is given off as energy, as described by Albert Einstein's famous "E=mc2" equation.

494.     The fusion reaction is about four million times more energetic than a chemical reaction such as the burning of coal, oil or gas.

495.     Fusion offers important advantages: no carbon emissions, no air pollution, unlimited fuel, and is intrinsically safe.

496.     Nuclear fusion reactor requires precisely controlled conditions of temperature, pressure and magnetic field parameters in order to generate net energy. If the reactor were damaged, the heat generation cease thus it is safe.

497.     The Sun creates energy through the nuclear fusion of hydrogen nuclei into helium.

498.     The biggest nuclear fusion research project is project International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. Main goal of ITER project is to design and build an experimental fusion reactor in France.

499.     ITER reactor is based on the 'tokamak' concept of magnetic confinement, in which the plasma is contained in a doughnut-shaped vacuum vessel.

500.     The IEA Fusion Power Co-ordinating Committee (FPCC) provides a platform for stakeholders to share results of fusion activities worldwide.

501.     Fusion differs from fission, which splits atoms and results in substantial radioactive waste, which is hazardous.

502.     Vitamin A is involved in immune function, vision, reproduction, and cellular communication.

503.     Vitamin A is critical for vision as an essential component of rhodopsin, a protein that absorbs light in the retinal receptors, and because it supports the normal differentiation and functioning of the conjunctival membranes and cornea

504.     Vitamin A also supports cell growth and differentiation, playing a critical role in the normal formation and maintenance of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs

505.     Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children and increases the risk of disease and death from severe infections.

506.     Breast milk is a natural source of vitamin A thus promoting breastfeeding is the best way to protect babies from VAD.

507.     In pregnant women VAD causes night blindness and may increase the risk of maternal mortality.

508.     The top food sources of vitamin A dairy products, liver, fish, and fortified cereals; carrots, broccoli, cantaloupe, and squash.

509.     The excess of preformed vitamin A can have significant toxicity (known as hypervitaminosis A).

510.     Chronic intakes of excess vitamin A lead to increased intracranial pressure (pseudotumor cerebri), dizziness, nausea, headaches, skin irritation, pain in joints and bones, coma, and even death.

511.     Electronic Voting Machine is a simple electronic device used to record votes in place of ballot papers and boxes which were used earlier in the conventional voting system.

512.     The complete EVM consists mainly of two units - (a) Control Unit and (b) Balloting Unit. The control unit is kept with the Presiding Officer and the Balloting Unit is used by the voter for polling.

513.     The EVMs were devised and designed by Election Commission of India in collaboration with two Public Sector undertakings viz., Bharat Electronics Limited, Bangalore and Electronics Corporation of India Limited, Hyderabad.

514.     Electronic Voting Machine (EVMs) were introduced for the first time on an experimental basis in 50 polling stations of Parur Assembly constituency in Kerala in 1982.

515.     The EVM's reduced the quantity of paper used, thus saving large number of trees, making the process eco-friendly and reduced the cost of printing to almost nill as only one sheet of ballot paper is required for each polling stations.

516.     Counting has become very quick and the result can be declared within 2 to 3 hours as compared to 30-40 hours, on an average, under the conventional system.

517.     Bogus voting has been greatly reduced by the use of EVMs. In case of ballot paper system, a bogus voter can stuff thousands of bogus ballot papers inside the ballot box. But, an EVM is programmed to record only five votes in a minute.

518.     Blind persons can use EVMs as the machines are equipped with 'Braille' signage on the ballot units indicating the serial number of the candidate.

519.     Election Commission decided to introduce EVMs with Voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT) system to make it tamper proof.

520.     In April 2011 Gujarat became the first Indian state to experiment with Internet voting.

521.     IUCN was founded in October 1948 as the International Union for the Protection of Nature (or IUPN) following an international conference in Fontainebleau, France.

522.     The organization changed its name to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in 1956 with the acronym IUCN (or UICN in French and Spanish).

523.     IUCN is the world's oldest and largest global environmental network having more than 1,200 member organizations including 200+ government and 900+ non-government organizations and almost 11,000 voluntary scientists and experts, grouped in six Commissions in some 160 countries.

524.     The Union's headquarters are located in Gland, near Geneva, Switzerland.

525.     IUCN mission is to influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable.

526.     It has been funded by governments, bilateral and multilateral agencies, foundations, member organizations and corporations.

527.     IUCN has one of the world's most comprehensive ranges of authoritative publications, reports, guidelines and databases for conservation and sustainable development.

528.     The organization publishes the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species.

529.     The president of IUCN is Zhang Xinsheng of China.

530.     It has the Official Observer Status at the United Nations General Assembly

531.     Drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply whether surface or underground water due to below average precipitation.

532.     There are 4 types of drought: Meteorological; Agricultural; Hydrological and Socio Economic.

533.     Hydrological drought- impact is seen in river systems and reservoirs that are necessary for supporting hydroelectric power and hydrologic storage systems.

534.     Meteorological drought- is the monitoring of atmospheric conditions for precipitation levels that lead to dry spells, the length a dry period and the overall amount of dryness.

535.     Agricultural drought- rainfall shortages reduce soil moisture resulting in crop stress, which effects food production and farming.

536.     Socioeconomic drought - when demand exceeds supply. Water shortages create a strain on products that are dependent on the water supply for production such as hydroelectric power, fisheries, food grains, etc.

537.     16% of the India's total area is drought prone and annually about 50 million people in the country are exposed to the crisis of drought.

538.     Most of drought prone areas lie in the arid (19.6%), semi-arid (37%) and sub-humid (21%) areas of the country that occupy 77.6% of its total land area of 329 million hectares.

539.     Depletion of Ground water and limitation of surface water imply that not all net sown area is amenable to irrigation.

540.     Per Capita Water availability is steadily declining due to increase in population, rapid industrialization, urbanization, cropping intensity and declining ground water level. Problems are likely to aggravate.

541.     Acid rain is a type of precipitation with high levels of nitric and sulfuric acids.

542.     In 1852, Robert Angus Smith was the first to show the relationship between acid rain and atmospheric pollution but the term "acid rain" was generated in 1972.

543.     Acid rain is caused by emissions of compounds of ammonium, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids.

544.     Unpolluted rain have a pH value of between 5 and 6. When the air becomes more polluted with nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide the acidity can increase to a pH value of 4.

545.     Acid rain dissolves and washes away the nutrients and minerals in the soil which help the trees to grow such as potassium, calcium and magnesium.

546.     It causes the release of harmful substances such as aluminium into the soil and waterways which further affects wildlife.

547.     It wears away the waxy protective coating of leaves, damaging them and preventing them from being able to photosynthesize properly.

548.     It causes respiratory problems in humans. Records show that each year, in the United States and Canada, nearly 550 premature deaths take place due to acid rain.

549.     Acid rain can corrode buildings and statues. It also corrodes marbles. Hence, the Taj Mahal in India is at a great risk.

550.     Lakes and streams are normally acidic, but acid rain can make them so acidic that it damages animal and plant life.

551.     Tulsi plant is a herbal plant which has a number of medicinal properties, is also known as the 'The Queen of Herbs'.

552.     There are three main varieties of Tulsi - Rama, Vana, and Krishna.

553.     The plant generally grows in moist soil. It reaches a height of about 3/2 feet. Tulsi belongs to the family of Lamiceae or the mint plants category.

554.     Tulsi contains chemical compounds such as eugenol, ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid, chlorophyll, caryophyllene, oleanolic acid and linolenic acid.

555.     Nutritional compounds found in tulsi include vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron and zinc.

556.     Tulsi is also known to be an adaptogen, as it brings a mind body balance and helps in preventing stress related problems.

557.     During the rainy season, when malaria and dengue fever are widely prevalent, tender leaves, boiled with tea, act as preventive against theses diseases.

558.     Tulsi can also be used to treat skin diseases like inflammation, blisters, rashes or even insect bites. Eczema and psoriasis are some serious skin disorders that can be cured efficiently by Tulsi.

559.     It can protect from radiation poisoning and also heal up damages from it.

560.     It is anti carcinogenic and found to be effective in healing nearly all types of cancer and tumors.

561.     Skin is the human body's largest organ weighing about 8 pounds and covering some 22 square feet.

562.     The area on eyelids consists of the thinnest skin, whereas feet consist of the thickest skin.

563.     Melanin, a protein is responsible for skin color and eye color.

564.     It is made up of three layers. The Epidermis is the outer layer, the Dermiss is the middle layer and Subcutaneous is the inner most layer.

565.     Skin renews every 28 days.

566.     Skin performs a range of different functions which include physically protecting bones, muscles and internal organs, protecting body from outside diseases, allowing to feel and react to heat and cold.

567.     It helps to regulate body temperature using blood.

568.     Goose bumps are little pimples that helps keep a layer of warm air over your body.

569.     If skin is severely damaged then it may try to heal by forming scar tissue. Scar tissue is not the same as normal skin tissue, it often appears discolored and lacks sweat glands and hair.

570.     Amphibians such as frogs have unique skin. Rather than drinking water, frogs actually soak it into their body through their skin. They also use their skin to absorb around half the air they need.

571.     Coal is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.

572.     Coal is a non-renewable energy source of energy, together with oil and natural gas belongs to the category of fossil fuels.

573.     Coal forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal, and lastly anthracite.

574.     Different types of coal contain different amounts of carbon. Lignite contains only around 60 to 75%, while anthracite contains more than 92%.

575.     Major coal deposits have been formed in nearly every geological age since the Carboniferous (350-250 million years ago).

576.     Brown coal is a relatively soft material which has a heating value only about one-quarter of that for black coal. It has much lower carbon content than black coal and a higher moisture content.

577.     Coal is converted to electricity by being burned in a furnace with a boiler. The boiler water is heated until it becomes steam, with the steam then spinning turbines and generators to create the electricity.

578.     Coal mining and the subsequent burning of coal can have many bad effects on both humans and the environment.

579.     Coal mining leads to generation of hundreds of millions of tonnes of waste products, including fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization sludge, that contain mercury, uranium, thorium, arsenic, and other heavy metals.

580.     Coal is the largest contributor to the human-made increase of CO2 in the atmosphere.

581.     The Speaker is the presiding officer of the lower house (Lok Sabha) of Parliament of India.

582.     The Speaker holds office from the date of election till immediately before the first meeting of the next Lok Sabha. He/She is eligible for re-election.

583.     On the dissolution of the Lok Sabha, although the Speaker ceases to be a member of the House, he/she does not vacate her office.

584.     The Speaker may, at any time, resign from office by writing under his/her hand to the Deputy Speaker.

585.     He/she decides whether a bill is a money bill or a non money bill.

586.     He/she maintains discipline and decorum in the house and can punish a member for their unruly behaviour by suspending them.

587.     He/she permits the moving of various kinds of motions and resolutions like themotion of no confidence, motion of adjournment, motion of censure and calling attention notice as per the rules.

588.     The Speaker decides on the agenda to be taken up for discussion during the meeting.

589.     The first speaker of the Lok Sabha was Shri G.V. Mavalankar.

590.     Meira Kumar is the first women speaker of the Indian Parliament.

591.     The UK is a country in north-western Europe. It is bordered to the south by the English Channel; to the east by the North Sea; to the west by the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.

592.     The United Kingdom is made up of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

593.     England, Scotland and Wales together forms Great Britain.

594.     Great Britain and Northern Ireland together form the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" (UK).

595.     The UK is a developed country and has the world's seventh-largest economy by nominal GDP and eighth-largest economy by purchasing power parity.

596.     It was the world's first industrialised country.

597.     The UK is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946. It has been a member of the European Union and its predecessor the European Economic Community since 1973.

598.     The Royal Greenwich Observatory in London is the defining point of the Prime Meridian.

599.     The UK's de facto official language is English (British English). According to the 2011 census, Polishhas become the second largest language spoken in England.

600.     England's national sport is cricket although some of England's football teams are world famous, such as Manchester United, Arsenal and Liverpool.

601.     A mountain pass is a saddle point between two areas of higher elevations and makes a path for crossing between the chains of mountains.

602.     The Khardung la's pass is located at the Ladakh range of the Himalayan ranges. It is a gateway to the valleys of Shyok and Nubra.

603.     The Karakoram pass is located in the Karakoram Ranges between Jammu and Kashmir border and the Xingjiang region of China.

604.     Bara-lacha la is present in Zanskar range connecting Lahaul district in Himachal Pradesh to Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, situated along the Leh-Manali highway.

605.     Jelep La is a high mountain pass between India and Tibet in East Sikkim District of Sikkim. It connects Lhasa to India.

606.     Nama Pass is located in eastern Kumaun region of the Pithoragarh District of Uttarakhand, India. It links Kuthi and Darma Valley.

607.     Nathu La connects the Indian state of Sikkim with China's Tibet Autonomous Region.

608.     Rohtang Pass is a high mountain pass on the eastern Pir Panjal Range of the Himalayas, connects the Kullu Valley with the Lahaul and Spiti Valleys of Himachal Pradesh, India.

609.     Shipki La is a mountain pass and border post on the India-China border. The river Sutlej enters India (from Tibet) through this pass.

610.     Zoji La is a high mountain pass in India, located on the Indian National Highway 1 between Srinagar and Leh in the western section of the Himalayan mountain range.

611.     A credit card is a payment card issued to users to pay for goods and services based on the holder's promise to pay for them to banks within stipulated time.

612.     The credit card issuer gives a certain amount of time to pay back all of what holder has borrowed before they charge interest. This period of time is called the grace period and is usually between 20 and 25 days.

613.     Zero interest credit cards or interest free credit cards help customers to avoid paying interest on credit, if they repay the debt within a specified period of time.

614.     In 1950, Diners Club became the first company to offer a credit card that could be used at multiple locations.

615.     A Debit card is essentially like an ATM card. When a person makes any purchases using a debit card, then bank account is instantaneously debited to the extent of the purchase amount.

616.     Benefits to customers include: convenience; rewards and benefits packages; also offer reward points which may be redeemed for cash, products, or airline tickets.

617.     Credit Card associations are an association of card-issuing banks such as Discover, Visa, MasterCard, American Express, etc. that set transaction terms for merchants, card-issuing banks, and acquiring banks.

618.     Visa International has the largest global ATM network in over 113 countries.

619.     According to 2009-10, credit card users in India are 18.3 million whereas debit card users are 181.4 million.

620.     On August 6, 1945, during World War II (1939-45), an American B-29 bomber dropped the world's first deployed atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima.

621.     It was done on the executive order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman.

622.     The atomic bomb was equivalent of 20,000 tons of TNT, it has flattened the city and killed tens of thousands of civilians.

623.     Three days later, a second B-29 dropped another A-bomb on Nagasaki, killing an estimated 40,000 people.

624.     Later Japan's Emperor Hirohito announced his country's unconditional surrender in World War II on August 15, citing the devastating power of "a new and most cruel bomb."

625.     Since then, more have died from leukemia and solid cancers attributed to exposure to radiation released by the bombs.

626.     The effects of the bombing of Hiroshima are still felt today. For generations after the bombing, children were born with severe health defects that are believed to be connected to the effects of the bomb's radiation.

627.     Hiroshima was chosen because it had not been targeted during the US Air Force's conventional bombing raids on Japan and it was also an important military base.

628.     After the war, Hiroshima was rebuilt as a peace memorial city and the closest surviving building to the epicentre was designated the Hiroshima Peace Memorial.

629.     Hiroshima has been declared a City of Peace by the Japanese Parliament.

630.     Rare earth elements or rare earth metals are a group of seventeen elements in the Periodic Table from Atomic no. 57 to 71.

631.     The group of the rare earth elements is sub-divided in the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and the light rare earth elements (LREE).

632.     Heavy rare earth elements include: Yttrium, Gadolinium, Terbium, Dysprosium, Holmium, Erbium, Thulium, Ytterbium and Lutetium.

633.     Light rare earth metals include: Scandium, Lanthanum, Cerium, Praseodymium, Neodymium, Promethium, Samarium and Europium.

634.     The term "rare earth" arises from the minerals from which were first isolated from uncommon oxide-type minerals (earths) found in Gadolinite extracted from one mine in the village of Ytterby, Sweden.

635.     Rare earths are used today in the production of many consumer goods such as computers, LCD screens and digital cameras as well as in "green technologies" such as wind turbines, electric cars and energy efficient lighting.

636.     The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates the global reserves of the sum of all rare earth oxides which could be economically extracted in future to be at 99,000,000 tons.

637.     The main producer of rare earth metals are: China, United States, Australia, India, Brazil, Malaysia and Kyrgyzstan.

638.     The main environmental risk in rare earth mining are the huge amounts of tailings, which are a toxic waste being stored in artificial ponds surrounded by the tailing dam.

639.     Most rare earth deposits contain radioactive materials which impose the risk of radioactive dust and water emissions.

640.     42nd Amendment Act was enacted during the period of internal emergency. It was passed by Parliament on November 11, 1976 and received Presidential assent on December 18, 1976.

641.     The words, 'Socialist' and 'secular' were added in the Preamble of the Constitution by 42nd amendment.

642.     It laid down the Fundamental Duties of Indian citizens to the nation.

643.     The amendment compelled the President to act in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister and the cabinet.

644.     It enlarged central power to intervene in the states, extending the term of President's rule from six months to a year and authorizing the use of any central military force "for dealing with any grave situation of law and order in any State.

645.     It envisaged the establishment of administrative tribunals for service matters of Government employees and also other tribunals for economic offences.

646.     The 42nd Amendment Act inserted Article 32A in order to deny the Supreme Court the power to consider the Constitutional validity of a State law.

647.     Another new provision Article 131A, gave the Supreme Court and exclusive jurisdiction to determine question relating to the Constitutional validity of a central law.

648.     It has given primacy to all directive principles over the fundamental right contained in Articles 14, 19 or 31.

649.     Prior to 42nd Amendment Act, the President could declare emergency under Article 352 throughout the country and not in a part of the country alone. The Act authorized the President to proclaim emergency in any part of the country.

650.     The concept of zero seems to have originated around 520 AD by the Indian named as Aryabhata, who has called it as "kha" and used it as a place holder.

651.     Brahmagupta, another Indian mathematician who lived in the 5th century, is credited for developing the Hindu-Arabic number system which included zero as an actual number in the system.

652.     The rules governing the use of zero appeared for the first time in Brahmagupta's book.

653.     Mathematicians like al-Khwarizmi and Leonardo Fibonacci expanded the use of zero in the whole world.

654.     The name 'zero' derives from the Arabic word sifr which also gave us the English word 'cipher' meaning 'a secret way of writing'.

655.     Different names for the number 0 include zero, nought, naught, nil, zilch.

656.     The number zero is neither positive nor negative, neither a prime number nor a composite number, nor it is a unit. It is an even number.

657.     Zero is a number which quantifies a count or an amount of null size.

658.     In set theory, 0 is the cardinality of the empty set.

659.     Zero (0) is the only number which cannot be represented by Roman numerals.

660.     Silver is a chemical element with symbol is Ag and atomic number 47.

661.     The Symbol Origin is from the Latin word 'argentum' meaning silver. Argentina was named for this precious metal.

662.     It is highly valued for jewelry, tableware, and other ornamental use and is widely used in coinage, photography, dental and soldering alloys, electrical contacts, and printed circuits.

663.     Silver is classified as a "Transition Metal" located in Groups 3 - 12 of the Periodic Table.

664.     Silver is harder than gold, but softer than copper.

665.     Silver is more malleable than any element except gold. It can be pounded to a thinness of 6/10000 of a millimeter.

666.     Silver has the highest degree of reflectivity as it can reflect up to 95% of visible light. Thus mirrors are coated with silver.

667.     Silver iodide has been used in the process of cloud seeding to produce rain.

668.     Silver has superior bactericidal qualities. Small concentrations of silver or silver salts can kill bacteria by chemically affecting the cell membranes, causing them to break down.

669.     The major producers of silver are: the United States, Mexico, Canada, Peru, Russia and Australia.

670.     President Rule is defined under the Article 356 of the Constitution.

671.     It is also known as "State Emergency" or "Constitutional Emergency".

672.     President's rule is imposed on a state when the Governor advises the Centre about collapse of the law & order in the state or the constitutional machinery.

673.     During the President Rule - the President can assume all or any of the functions of the State Government or he may vest all or any of those functions to the Governor or any other executive authority.

674.     The President may also dissolve the State Legislative Assembly or put it under suspension.

675.     The President's rule is valid for a period of six months only, with an extension for another six month subject to approval of the Parliament.

676.     It can be extended for a maximum three years with the approval of the parliament, every six months.

677.     The 44th AA inserted a provision that emergency beyond one year can be extended by six months at a time only when: a National Emergency is already in operation; or if the Election Commission certifies that the election to the State Assembly cannot be held.

678.     For the first time President’s Rule was imposed on Punjab from 20-6-1951 to 17-4-1952.

679.     Kerala and Punjab are the States where President's Rule was imposed for the maximum number of times.

680.     Nitrogen gas (N2) makes up 78.1% of the Earth's atmosphere.

681.     Nitrogen was discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772.

682.     Nitrogen is colourless, odourless, tasteless, and nonflammable.

683.     Nitrogen gas is relatively inert, but soil bacteria can 'fix' nitrogen into a form that plants and animals can use to make amino acids and proteins.

684.     Ammonia (NH3) is a common and very important nitrogen compound used in the fertilizer, plastic, and livestock industries.

685.     Liquid nitrogen is used as a food preservative because it's fast cooling can deep freeze food with minimal damage to the cell structure.

686.     Nitrogen is also used to preserve blood, viruses, and livestock semen, and can be used to destroy diseased tissue during surgery.

687.     Nitrous oxide is a considerable greenhouse gas and air pollutant. By weight is has nearly 300 times more impact than carbon dioxide.

688.     Nitroglycerin is a liquid used to create explosives such as dynamite which is often used in the demolition and construction industries as well as by the military.

689.     Nitrogen is also responsible for the orange-red, blue-green, blue-violet, and deep violet colors of the aurora.

690.     Carbohydrates are an ideal source of energy for the body. The body receives 4 calories per 1 gram of carbohydrates consumed.

691.     Carbohydrates contain carbon, oxygen and hydrogen.

692.     There are two types of carbohydrate: complex and simple.

693.     Simple carbohydrates are made up of 1-2 sugar molecules which can be digested very quickly, and tend to elevate the blood sugar quickly.

694.     Refined sugar, dairy sugar, fruit sugar, refined flour are all sources of simple carbohydrates.

695.     Complex carbohydrates are made up of long chains of sugar molecules which take longer to break down thus supplies constant energy for a longer duration.

696.     Corn, bread, cereal, rice, beans, pasta, wheat, grains, potatoes etc are all sources of simple carbohydrates.

697.     Carbohydrates can also be classified on the basis of their chemical composition as: Monosaccharides; Disaccharides; Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides.

698.     The Glycemic Index or GI is a measure of the effects of carbohydrates on blood sugar levels.

699.     A "high GI" number carbohydrate food breaks down more quickly and affects blood sugar levels faster than a "low GI" number carbohydrate food.

700.     'Stree Shakti Puraskar' is given every year to eminent women for their dedication to social development and to bring about a more gender equitable society.

701.     The award is given in the name of the following eminent women personalities in the Indian history: Devi Ahilya Bai Holkar; Kannagi; Mata Jajabai; Rani Gaidinliu Zeliang; Rani Lakshmi Bai and Rani Rudramma Devi (for both men & women).

702.     The award is given to women who have done work related to Support and rehabilitation of women and children; education; SHGs; Support to women in agriculture and rural industry; Environment protection etc.

703.     Also, who have created awareness and consciousness on women's issues through arts and media would be recognized and awarded by the Government.

704.     Rani Laxmi Bai award is given to recognize the spirit of courage and the personal achievement of a woman in difficult circumstances, who has established this spirit of courage in her individual or professional life.

705.     Rani Rudramma Devi, which will be awarded to individual men or women for their outstanding administrative skill, leadership quality and courage.

706.     Each of the above awards carries a cash prize of Rs 3 Lakh and citation.

707.     The Nominations received are screened by a national level Selection Committee headed by Minister of Women & Child Development.

708.     The awards are generally presented in New Delhi on the occasion of International Women's Day Celebration i.e. 8th March.

709.     The recognition like this will also go a long way in moulding societal mind sets to accept and encourage the versatile roles of women in Indian Society.

710.     Fat is an essential part of a healthy balanced diet - needed for proper functioning of nerves, brain and skin cells and to help to control body temperature.

711.     It can often improve the flavour and perception of foods, increasing their palatability.

712.     Fat transports the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K around the body.

713.     Fats in foods are mainly divided as: Saturated; Polyunsaturated; Monounsaturated and trans.

714.     Monounsaturated are healthy fats found mainly in plant sources, like nuts, avocados and olive, peanut and canola oils remain liquid at room temperature.

715.     Polyunsaturated fat are healthy fats that include omega-3 and omega-6 fats.

716.     Polyunsaturated are liquid at room temperature, and can help lower blood cholesterol and reduce risk of heart diseases.

717.     Saturated fat is generally solid at room temperature and is usually from animal sources such as butter, hard margarine, cheese, whole milk.

718.     Trans fat is formed when unsaturated vegetable oils are hydrogenated (or partially hydrogenated) to form solid, more stable fats.

719.     Both saturated and trans fats raise the level of 'bad' low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood.

720.     Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal with the symbol Au and atomic number 79..

721.     Gold is only 2.5 on the Mohs scale of hardness- Pure gold is so soft and malleable that it can be squeezed and transformed to any shape.

722.     High purity gold reflects infrared (heat) energy almost completely, making it ideal for heat and radiation reflection.

723.     White gold is 18-karat or 14-karat gold (but not in 22-karat, as it is yellow gold).

724.     There are two basic types of white gold alloys: white gold mixed with nickel and white gold mixed with palladium.

725.     Copper creates pink and rose tones in gold.The more the copper, the deeper will be the effect.

726.     Greenish shades are created by adding silver to gold while excluding copper from the mix.

727.     Household gold consumption has gone up to $45 bn in 2011 from US$19 billion in 2009.

728.     Gold imports rose from $9.1 billion in Q1 FY13 to $10.5 billion in Q2 FY13, gold imports were lower in FY12.

729.     Besides its widespread monetary and symbolic functions, gold has many practical uses in dentistry, electronics, and other fields including electric wiring, colored-glass production and gold leafing.

730.     Microsoft Windows is a series of graphical interface operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

731.     Windows 8 is the current release of the Windows operating system, for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablets, and home theater PCs.

732.     Windows 8 is mainly a tablet oriented and will be equally well on the portable machines like the tablets, PDAs and smartphones.

733.     The Internet Explorer (IE) 10 browser inbuilt into Windows 8 is designed to offer faster browsing through greater hardware acceleration, along with rapid gesture-based zoom, pan, and Web site navigation.

734.     Windows 8 include two new authentication methods for safety and security tailored towards touch screens: PINs and picture passwords.

735.     It introduces a new style of application, Windows Store apps used to provide listings for desktop applications certified to run on Windows 8.

736.     Windows 8 would not require new hardware and will runs smoothly on the same system which has been running Vista earlier.

737.     Zooming has been integrated into web browsing which will shrink all tiles by intelligently resizing them, making it easier to move the group of tiles and organize them.

738.     It supports a feature of the UEFI feature which allows operating systems to be digitally signed to prevent malware from altering the boot process.

739.     In Windows 8 support for playing DVDs has been removed from Windows Media Player due to the cost of licensing the necessary decoders.

740.     DNA is a double-stranded nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function.

741.     DNA was first isolated in 1869 by Friedrich Miescher but James Watson and Francis Crick figured out the structure of DNA.

742.     DNA is made of chemical building blocks called nucleotides which are made up of three parts: a phosphate group, a sugar group and one of four types of nitrogen bases.

743.     The four types of nitrogen bases found in nucleotides are: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C).

744.     Over 99% of a DNA sequence of a person is the same as other humans'.

745.     DNA profiling uses variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) for the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles.

746.     The complete DNA instruction book, or genome, for a human contains about 3 billion bases and about 20,000 genes on 23 pairs of chromosomes.

747.     DNA is used to determine the pedigree for livestock or pets.

748.     DNA is used in wildlife forensics to identify endangered species and people who hunt them (poachers).

749.     Changes in the DNA sequence are called mutations which can be induced by UV irradiation from the sun, chemicals like drugs, etc.

750.     The brain only makes up about 2% of our body mass, yet consumes 20% of the oxygen that enters our bloodstream.

751.     The human brain is the fattest organ in the body and may consists of at least 60% fat.

752.     The left side of your brain (left hemisphere) controls the right side of your body; and, the right side of your brain (right hemisphere) controls the left side of your body.

753.     The two hemispheres contribute to the processing and understanding of language: the left hemisphere processes the rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech while the right hemisphere processes the emotions conveyed by it.

754.     The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, accounting for 85 percent of the organ's weight, controls all voluntary actions in the body.

755.     The second largest part of the brain is the cerebellum, responsible for coordinating muscle movement and controlling our balance.

756.     The brain's nerve cells are known as neurons, which transmit and gather electrochemical signals that are communicated via a network of millions of nerve fibers called dendrites and axons.

757.     Alcohol interferes with brain processes by weakening connections between neurons.

758.     The Hypothalamus part of the brain regulates body temperature much like a thermostat.

759.     The brain stem, at the organ's base, controls reflexes and crucial, basic life functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure.

760.     ASEAN consists of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia.

761.     It was established on Aug. 8, 1967, in Bangkok of Thailand, by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.

762.     Brunei joined the group in January 1984, followed by Vietnam in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997 and Cambodia in 1999.

763.     The region has a combined population of about 537 million, and an area of around 4.5 million square kilometers.

764.     It aims at accelerating economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region along with the maintenance of regional peace and stability by respecting justice and the rule of law.

765.     It also aims at maintaining friendly relations among countries in the region, and by adhering to the principles of the United Nations Charter.

766.     ASEAN held its first summit in 1976 in Bali, Indonesia.

767.     ASEAN's highest decision-making body is the ASEAN summit.

768.     In 2003, the ASEAN leaders agreed for the establishment of ASEAN Community-the ASEAN Security Community, the ASEAN Economic Community and the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.

769.     In addition, ASEAN has established dialogue partnerships with the United States, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the European Union, South Korea, China, Russia and India.

770.     Ethanol is a clean-burning, high-octane fuel produced from renewable sources such as corn, wheat, barley and potatoes.

771.     U.S. mainly produces ethanol from corn whereas Brazil uses sugarcane.

772.     Ethanol can be found in alcoholic beverages thus listed as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.

773.     When mixed with gasoline, it can be used to fuel vehicles and other engines. As a fuel, it is more corrosive than gasoline.

774.     Ethanol provides high quality, high octane for exceptional car engine performance and reduced emissions.

775.     Studies show ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emissions between 59-61% compared to gasoline.

776.     The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoPNG) issued a notification in September 2002 for mandatory blending of 5 % ethanol in 9 major sugar producing states and four union territories from 2003.

777.     The blending level of bio-ethanol at 5 % with petrol was proposed from October 2008, leading to a target of 20 % blending of bio-ethanol by 2017.

778.     Ethanol reduces the country's dependence on imported oil, lowering the trade deficit and ensuring a dependable source of fuel should foreign supplies be interrupted.

779.     The major drawback is that it tends to increase aldehydes emissions.

780.     The chemical symbol of hydrogen is H. It is an element with atomic number 1, this means that 1 proton is found in the nucleus of hydrogen.

781.     Hydrogen is the lightest, simplest and most commonly found chemical element in the Universe, making up around 75% of its elemental mass.

782.     Hydrogen was first recognized as a distinct element in 1766 by English scientist Henry Cavendish, when he prepared it by reacting hydrochloric acid with zinc.

783.     French scientist Antoine Lavoisier later named the element hydrogen (1783). The name comes from the Greek 'hydro' meaning water and 'genes' meaning forming-hydrogen is one of the two water forming elements.

784.     About 10 percent of the weight of living organisms is hydrogen-mainly in water, proteins and fats.

785.     Liquid hydrogen has the lowest density of any liquid and Solid, crystalline hydrogen has the lowest density of any crystalline solid.

786.     Hydrogen reacts explosively with the elements oxygen, chlorine and fluorine: O2, Cl2, F2.

787.     Large amounts of hydrogen are combined with nitrogen from the air to produce ammonia (NH3) through a process called the Haber process.

788.     Hydrogen is also added to fats and oils, such as peanut oil, through a process called hydrogenation.

789.     Liquid hydrogen is used in the study of superconductors and, when combined with liquid oxygen, makes an excellent rocket fuel.

790.     The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is an international non-governmental organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre, Baron de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894.

791.     The IOC and its 205 National Olympic Committees worldwide promote the Olympic Movement, whose vision is to contribute to building a peaceful and better world by educating youth through sport.

792.     The IOC and its NOC selects the host city and coordinate the staging of the Olympic Games.

793.     The IOC organizes the modern Olympic Games and Youth Olympic Games, held in Summer and Winter, every four years.

794.     The first Summer Olympics was organized by the International Olympic Committee in Athens, Greece, in 1896.

795.     The first Winter Olympics was organized by the International Olympic Committee in Chamonix, France, in 1924.

796.     The first Summer Youth Olympics were in Singapore in 2010 and the first Winter Youth Olympics were held in Innsbruck in 2012.

797.     Recently the India Olympic Association has been suspended from the IOC.

798.     The IOA will no longer get funds from IOC and the officials will not be invited by the IOC to attend its events like the Olympics and Paralympics.

799.     The Indian athletes will not be allowed to compete under the tricolour but could be permitted to compete under the IOC flag.

800.     Foreign Direct Investment, or FDI, is a type of investment that involves the injection of foreign funds into an enterprise that operates in a different country of origin from the investor.

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Last Updated on Sunday, 13 April 2014 12:02