Home Essay/Articles BRAIN DRAIN
Saturday, 03 February 2018 07:01



Brain Drain is the term used to state a significant emigration of educated and talented individuals. It occurs in countries such as India where the employment opportunities are not at par with the educated youth in the nation. Brain Drain is a slang used to describe a considerable emigration of highly educated and brilliant individuals. It is mainly an outcome of lack of good employment opportunities within a nation.


Brain Drain refers to the mass departure of learned and talented people from a country, organization or industry. It causes a major problem for their place of origin as it suffers loss of talent that in turn impacts their economic condition. Many countries and organizations around the world are undergoing this grave issue due to various factors.

The Origin of the Term – Brain Drain

The term brain drain was sprint by the Royal Society. It was initially coined to refer to the mass departure of the scientists and technologists from the post-war Europe to North America. However, as per another source, this term first sprung up in the United Kingdom and it referred to the arrival of the Indian engineers and scientists. Brain waste and brain circulation are other similar terms.

Initially, the term referred to the technology workers immigrating to another nation however over the time it has become a general term used to describe the mass departure of talented and skilled individuals from one country, industry or organization to another in search of better paying jobs and higher standard of living.

Types of Brain Drain

Brain drain occurs at three levels – geographic, organizational and industrial. Here is a look at these different types of Brain Drain in detail:

1. Geographical Brain Drain

It is referred to the departure of highly brilliant and skilled individuals to another country in search of better paying jobs. It has a negative impact of their home country’s economy and overall development.

2. Organizational Brain Drain

The mass exodus of highly talented, skilled and creative employees from one organization to join another is referred to as organizational brain drain. It weakens the organization and toughens competition.

3. Industrial Brain Drain

It is the departure of employees from one industry in search of better jobs in other industries. It disturbs the working of the industries where brain drain occurs.

Factors Causing Brain Drain

There are different factors that cause brain drain at different levels. Though these factors are more or less the same, here is a look at these category wise:

1.Geographic Brain Drain

Here are the factors responsible for geographic brain drain:

  • Unstable political conditions of a country
  • Reservation system (in India) that denies good jobs to the deserving candidates and mostly provides high pay packages to the non-deserving ones
  • Low standard of living
  • Lack of good employment opportunities
  • Lack of good medical facilities

2.Organizational Brain Drain

It generally occurs due to the following reasons:

  • Lack of good leadership and management in the organization
  • Low or no scope of growth
  • Pay packages lower than the market standards
  • Lack of fair play while giving promotions
  • No appreciation for work
  • Stringent working hours
  • Unreasonable work pressure
  • Relocation to a remote place also causes people to look for job elsewhere

3.Industrial Brain Drain

Here are some of the top reasons for industrial brain drain:

  • Low salary package
  • Low growth prospects
  • Undue work load

Health hazards attached to certain industries

Countries Suffering Brain Drain

While the third world countries suffer majorly from the issue of brain drain, developed countries are not safe either. Here is a look at the countries suffering major brain drain:

1. The United Kingdom

The United Kingdom that attracts numerous immigrants each year with its attractive pay packages and high standard of living also sees a major brain drain. Several individuals with University degrees have left UK, their country of origin, to seek jobs in other parts of the world.

2. India

The education system of India is considered to be quite strong and one that produces extremely talented and highly intelligent youth who are in demand in every part of the world. Indians get good packages outside along with better standard of living and thus leave their country.

3. Greece

Greece has also been included in the list of countries facing the brain drain problem lately. The debt crises explosion in 2008 led to a rapid increase in this issue. A majority of the people from Greece migrate to Germany each year.

4. Iran

Iran is known for religious dictatorship and political oppression and this has led more than 4 million Iranians to migrate to other countries. Research suggests that around 15,000 university educated individuals leave Iran to get settled in other parts of the country each year.

5. Nigeria

The civil war in Nigeria is one of the main reasons for Brain Drain in the country. A large number of Nigerians migrate to US each year in search of better job prospects and better standard of living.

6. Malaysia

Malaysia has also been facing the problem of Brain Drain mainly because its neighbouring country, Singapore offers better paying jobs there by sucking the former’s talent.

China, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mexico and Jamaica are among the other countries that suffer major brain drain.

Last Updated on Saturday, 10 February 2018 06:15